Current issue: 56(4)
Under compilation: 57(1)
Half-deciduous woodlands are the combination of deciduous forests and heath forests from their vegetation. The article describes three half-deciduous forest types from the commune of Hager, 40 kilometers south form Tallinn.
The occurrence of half-deciduous forests depends on the soil conditions, especially on lime content of the soil, when the occurrence of other forest types is more a question of climate. They are important as an original site for many continental plant species.
The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
The article summarizes the observations about forest types from different parts of Estonia. The chosen examples represent the normal forest where age class division is natural and the species composition has not been altered through felling or grazing. These are mainly found in the areas of earlier manors of the nobility. The samples are only from mineral soils. Vegetation analysis and middle-European height-over-age-survey were made.
Because of the great share of herb-rich-forest the forest type classification for Estonia is complex. There are many types that have not been described earlier.
The study describes the characteristics and the vegetation types of the heath forests, fresh forests, half-herb-rich-forests and herb-rich-forests.
The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.
The data has been collected in the dry heathy forests in Harjavalta commune in south-west Finland and in Sodankylä commune in Lapland in summer time 1918 and 1919. The aim to the study was to find out how does the water consumption of the trees affect the moisture conditions of the soil and how they are linked to the regeneration of the forest.
Trees in one age class have a certain spatial distribution: the greater the distance between trees the older the trees and the smaller the distance, the younger the trees. This seem to rather be due to the development of the root system and the nutrition intake of a tree than the competition for light. The moisture content of the upper soil layers is higher in the open areas than in the closed canopy stands. Hence there are more seedlings growing in open areas. However, it is not clear whether the results apply for other forest site types as well, and more research is needed.
The study presents and describes the abundance and distribution of tree roots in specific stands of heathy forest types in Lapland. The data was collected in the Sodankylä commune.
Due to the shortcomings in the data, conclusions can be drawn only regarding pine forests. The result of study states that the root competition plays an important role in the development of the forests, and most of the other observed phenomena are linked with root competition. The more infertile the soil the vertically and horizontally wider and more abundant the root system. It seems that the abundance of the root system is similar in forest of same fertility class and same density and age.
The data has been collected from northern Finland between about 64th and 68th north latitudes, excluding the polar tree line areas. The sample plots have been selected to represents greatest variation of the habitats in altitude, rainfall and other site factors. The selected trees were cut, their age, height, and diameter at various heights examined and possible signs of forest fires noticed. The age of the trees was examined also with microscope. The age class distribution of the sample plots was studied. The determination of historical seed years was based on age class distribution of the sample plots.
Grouping of the trees into different age classes was too weak a method to make any conclusions about the periodicity or even less about the frequency of the seed years. There were also noticeable differences in determining the age of the trees between macroscopic and microscopic age examination. There are also differences in the amount of seedlings between different forest types.The growth of pines in northern Finland is very slow particularly in the young ages but the growth increases after they reach 1,3 meters, which may take up to 30 years. The development of the forest has been similar through last centuries