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Articles by Raffaele Spinelli

Category: Research article

article id 10355, category Research article
Grzegorz Szewczyk, Raffaele Spinelli, Natascia Magagnotti, Paweł Tylek, Janusz M. Sowa, Piotr Rudy, Dominika Gaj-Gielarowiec. (2020). The mental workload of harvester operators working in steep terrain conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 3 article id 10355. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10355
Keywords: logging; ergonomics; eye tracking; fatigue; gaze behaviour
Highlights: We analysed a harvester operator’s perception of his work environment as slope gradient increased; Increasingly difficult work conditions (steeper terrain) were reflected by increased eyeball activity; Fixation duration increased with slope gradient, while the duration of saccades was shorter; Variation of the eyeball movement cycles was also related to work difficulty caused by slope gradient.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The use of modern multi-functional forestry machines has already been associated with central nervous system fatigue induced by high mental workload. As these machines are being used under increasingly difficult terrain conditions, further knowledge is required on the expected aggravation of operators’ mental workload, so that suitable work/rest schedules can be developed. Within such a context, the aim of this study was to gauge aggravations of mental workload derived from increasing slope gradient. Measurements of eye activity were obtained from a representative harvester operator working in corridors with the following mean inclinations: 9%, 23% and 47%. The duration, frequency and trajectory of eye movements were used to determine the harvester operator’s mental workload, on the assumption that worsening work conditions would be reflected by increased eyeball activity. The number of fixations during the performance of all tasks increased with the increasing slope gradient. Similarly, fixation duration increased with slope gradient. The mean duration of saccades when working on a 23% slope was 5% shorter compared to work under a 9% gradient. A further significant shortening of saccade duration (~22%) occurred when working on a 47% slope. The good match between eye activity cycles and work cycles, visible especially on steep slopes, indicates that mental workload is related to work conditions. Overall, operating a forest harvester on steep slopes results in a greatly increased mental workload and calls for suitable rest schedules.

  • Szewczyk, University of Agriculture in Krakow; al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland E-mail: rlszewcz@cyf-kr.edu.pl (email)
  • Spinelli, National Research Council of Italy, Firenze, via Madonna del Piano, 10 50019 – Sesto Fiorentino, Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it
  • Magagnotti, National Research Council of Italy, Firenze, via Madonna del Piano, 10 50019 – Sesto Fiorentino, Italy E-mail: natascia.magagnotti@ibe.cnr.it
  • Tylek, University of Agriculture in Krakow; al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland E-mail: rltylek@cyf-kr.edu.pl
  • Sowa, University of Agriculture in Krakow; al. 29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków, Poland E-mail: janusz.sowa@urk.edu.pl
  • Rudy, State Forests, Biłgoraj Forest District, ul. Zamojska 96, 23-400 Biłgoraj, Poland E-mail: rudy.piotrek@o2.pl
  • Gaj-Gielarowiec, State Forests, Barycz Forest District, Barycz 69, 26-200 Końskie, Poland E-mail: dominika.gaj@gmail.com
article id 10211, category Research article
Gernot Erber, Raffaele Spinelli. (2020). Timber extraction by cable yarding on flat and wet terrain: a survey of cable yarder manufacturer’s experience. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 10211. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10211
Keywords: forest soils; soil compaction; logging equipment; sensitive soils
Highlights: Survey of all European cable yarder manufacturers on flat-terrain yarding; Manufacturers are frequently contacted concerning flat-terrain yarding; Forest resource inaccessibility, regulatory and environmental considerations are most important motivations; Lack of clearance, tree stability and installation costs are major challenges; Mobile, self-anchoring tail spar is considered a chief adaptation; Cost-competitiveness with ground-based systems cannot be achieved without subsidies; Increasing environmental awareness and climate change present opportunity to expand flat-terrain cable yarding.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Cable yarding is a general solution for load handling on sites not accessible to ground-based machinery, and is typically associated with steep terrain. On flat terrain, such conditions can primarily be found on soft or wet soils, most frequently encountered in Central and Northern European countries. Today, changed environmental and market conditions may offer an unprecedented opportunity to the actual implementation of cable yarding on flat terrain in commercial operations. The study goal was to collect cable yarder manufacturers experience regarding the use and adaption of cable yarding technology on flat terrain. European manufacturers of cable yarding technology were interviewed about customer experience, particular challenges, adaptation potential, future potential and main hurdles for the expansion of cable yarding on flat terrain. Almost all manufacturers have received requests for flat-terrain yarding technology solutions, primarily from Germany. Temporal or permanent inaccessibility, regulatory or environmental reasons were the most frequent motivation for considering cable yarding technology. Installation was considered particularly challenging (clearance, stable anchoring). Potential adaptations included higher towers, artificial anchors, mechanized bunching before extraction and un-guyed yarder-systems. An artificial, highly mobile, self-anchoring tail spar was considered the most useful adaptation. While concerned about limited profitability and qualified labour shortage, most manufacturers demonstrated a positive or neutral view concerning the expansion of cable yarding on flat terrain. However, cable yarding is not considered to be cost-competitive wherever ground-based systems can be employed and cable yarding is not subsidized.

  • Erber, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Engineering, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, 1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1606-5258 E-mail: gernot.erber@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Spinelli, CNR-IBE Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto per la BioEconomia, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, I-50019, Italy; AFORA, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9545-1004 E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it
article id 7003, category Research article
Poje Anton, Raffaele Spinelli, Natascia Magagnotti, Matevz Mihelic. (2018). The effect of feedstock, knife wear and work station on the exposure to noise and vibrations in wood chipping operations. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 1 article id 7003. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7003
Keywords: biomass; fuelwood; ergonomics; safety
Highlights: Exposure to noise and vibration is higher when chipping branches rather than logs; Noise levels are higher in the separate cab, especially at some frequencies; Vibration is higher for the Z axis in the separate cab, for the X axis in the truck; Noise is higher when working with blunt knives, rather than new knives; Knife wear has no significant effect on exposure to whole-body vibration.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Industrial chipping is becoming increasingly popular, as the result of a growing demand for woody biomass. Industrial chippers are large, powerful machines that generate much noise and vibration. This study explored some factors that may affect exposure to noise and vibration, namely: feedstock type (branches vs. logs), work station characteristics (truck cab vs. separate cab) and knife wear (new knives vs. blunt knives). Exposure to noise was significantly affected by all three factors, and it was higher for branch feedstock, separate cabs and blunt knives. The higher exposure levels recorded for the separate cab were especially insidious, because they were below and above the hearing threshold and would elude immediate perception. Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) was significantly higher for branch feedstock and for the separate cab. Knife wear seemed to determine an increase in WBV, but this effect had no statistical significance and the result could not be taken as conclusive. Among the three factors studied, work station characteristics had the strongest effect. Further studies may extend the comparison to a wider range of options, as well as explore the use of exposure variation for machine diagnostics.

  • Anton, University of Ljubljana, Dept. of Forestry and Renewable Resources, Večna pot 83, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: anton.poje@bf.uni-lj.si
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; AFORA, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558 Australia ORCID http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9545-1004 E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Magagnotti, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; AFORA, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558 Australia E-mail: magagnotti@ivalsa.cnr.it
  • Mihelic, University of Ljubljana, Dept. of Forestry and Renewable Resources, Večna pot 83, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: matevz.mihelic@bf.uni-lj.si
article id 1599, category Research article
Andrew McEwan, Michal Brink, Raffaele Spinelli. (2017). Factors affecting the productivity and work quality of chain flail delimbing and debarking. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1599
Keywords: modeling; plantation; coppice; efficiency; pulpwood; processing
Highlights: Machine productivity averaged 59 m3 ub SMH–1, with a 19% incidence of delay time; Productivity increased 70% if tree volume increased from 0.1 to 0.4 m3 ub; Debarking quality was good for 58% of the trees, medium for 29% and poor for 13%; The more trees in a bunch and the higher BWBS, the lower debarking quality.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Chain flail delimbing and debarking may improve value recovery from small tree harvests, without renouncing the benefits of multi-tree processing. The technology is mature and capable of excellent performance, which has been documented in many benchmark studies. This paper offers new insights into the relationship between the performance of chain flail delimbing and debarking and such factors as tree volume, load volume, tree form and bark-wood bond strength (BWBS). The study was conducted in Chile, during the commercial harvesting of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantation. In an observational study, researchers collected production data from over 780 work cycles, and work quality data from over 1000 individual trees. The analysis of these data shows that productivity is affected primarily by load volume. Work quality is affected by BWBS and by the number of trees in a load. Work quality degrades with increasing BWBS and tree number, since more trees tend to shield each other. Tree form has no effect on either productivity or work quality. Regression and probability functions are provided, and can be used for predictive purposes when trying to optimize current operations or to prospect the introduction of chain flail technology to new work environments.

  • McEwan, Postgraduate Forest Programme, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20 Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa E-mail: Andrew.McEwan@nmmu.ac.za
  • Brink, Postgraduate Forest Programme, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20 Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa E-mail: michal@cmo.co.za
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy ORCID http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9545-1004 E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
article id 1448, category Research article
Andrew McEwan, Natascia Magagnotti, Raffaele Spinelli. (2016). The effects of number of stems per stool on cutting productivity in coppiced Eucalyptus plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1448. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1448
Keywords: modeling; logging; short rotation forestry; efficiency; operator effect
Highlights: Double- and single stem coppice stools were harvested mechanically; Stem size had the strongest impact on productivity; An experienced operator performed equally well with both stool treatments; Cost was ~10% higher with double stems for the less experienced operator; Operator experience may play a major role when cutting coppice stands.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A time study was conducted to determine whether stem crowding had any impact on harvester productivity in Eucalyptus grandis stands. This represents an important element when trying to balance the advantages and disadvantages of coppice management in fast growing plantations designated for mechanized harvesting (i.e. machine felling, delimbing, debarking and cross-cutting). The study material consisted of 446 coppice stems, half of which grew as single stems per stool and half as double stems per stool as a result of different coppice reduction strategies. The dataset was balanced and randomized, with both subsets replicating exactly the same stem size distribution and the single and double stems alternating randomly. Harvester productivity ranged between 6 and 50 m3 under bark per productive machine hour, following the variation of tree diameter from 10 to 40 cm at breast height (1.37 m according to South African standards). Regression analysis indicated that both tree size and stem crowding (e.g. one or two stems per stool) had a significant effect on harvester productivity, which increased with stem size and decreased with stem crowding. However, operator experience may overcome the effect of stem crowding, which was not significant when the harvester was manned by a highly experienced operator. In any case, the effect of stem size was much greater than that of stem crowding, which resulted in a cost difference of less than 10%. However, this figure excludes the possible effects of stem crowding on volume recovery and stem development, which should be addressed in the future.

  • McEwan, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University – George Campus, Saasveld, 6529, George, South Africa E-mail: Andrew.McEwan@nmmu.ac.za
  • Magagnotti, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: magagnotti@ivalsa.cnr.it
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
article id 1342, category Research article
Blas Mola-Yudego, Gianni Picchi, Dominik Röser, Raffaele Spinelli. (2015). Assessing chipper productivity and operator effects in forest biomass operations. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1342. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1342
Keywords: mixed models; efficiency; comminution; operator effect; raw material supply; wood chippers
Highlights: A model is constructed to assess the productivity in chipping of wood biomass at roadside; The data includes 172 trials and 67 operators in Italy; The operator effect was included in a mixed model approach; The R2 were 0.76 (fixed part) and 0.88 (incl. operator effects).
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present research focuses on the productivity of energy wood chipping operations at several sites in Italy. The aim was to assess the productivity and specifically the effect attributed to the operator in the chipping of wood biomass. The research included 172 trials involving 67 operators across the country that were analysed using a mixed model approach, in order to assess productivity, and to isolate the operator effect from other potential variables. The model was constructed using different predictors aiming to explain the variability due to the machines and the raw-materials. The final model included the average piece weight of raw material chipped as well as the power of the machine. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.76 for the fixed part of the model, and 0.88 when the effects due to the operators were included. The operators’ performance compared to their peers was established, and it was compared to a subjective classification based on the operator’s previous experience. The results of this study can help to the planning and logistics of raw material supply for bioenergy, as well as to a more effective training of future forest operators.

  • Mola-Yudego, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway ORCID http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0286-0170 E-mail: blas.mola@uef.fi (email)
  • Picchi, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy E-mail: picchi@ivalsa.cnr.it
  • Röser, Forest Feedstocks Group, FPInnovations, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada E-mail: dominik.roser@fpinnovations.ca
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it
article id 1003, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Carolina Lombardini, Natascia Magagnotti. (2014). The effect of mechanization level and harvesting system on the thinning cost of Mediterranean softwood plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 1003. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1003
Keywords: chipping; biomass; logging; compaction; stand damage
Highlights: Whole-tree harvesting is 40–50% cheaper than cut-to-length harvesting; Mechanization reduced thinning cost by a factor 4; Between 1.5 and 6% of the residual trees were damaged; Mechanized cut-to-length harvesting allows controlled biomass release; Mechanized whole-tree harvesting is the cheapest option for energy chip production.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The study compared motor-manual cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting, motor-manual whole-tree (WT) harvesting, mechanized CTL harvesting and mechanized WT harvesting as applied to the production of energy chips from the second thinning of Mediterranean pine plantations in flat terrain. Mechanization increased productivity between 6 and 20 times, depending on process step. It also allowed reducing thinning cost by a factor 4. Shifting from CTL to WT harvesting resulted in a reduction of harvesting cost between 40 and 50%. Fuel consumption was between 40 and 100% higher for CTL harvesting than for WT harvesting. Mechanization entailed a reduction of fuel consumption between 10 and 40%. Stand damage was generally low, between 1.5 and 6%. Mechanized CTL harvesting resulted in the lowest incidence of wounding, and the difference between mechanized CTL and manual WT harvesting was statistically significant. Soil compaction was absent or very small, depending on treatment. Mechanized thinning may produce larger increases of soil bulk density, compared to motor-manual thinning, but the difference is small, although significant. CTL harvesting leaves a larger amount of biomass on the soil, which relieves possible concerns about soil nutrient depletion. On the other hand, heavy residue loads may increase fire risk especially in sensitive Mediterranean environments.
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA,Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Lombardini, CNR IVALSA,Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: lombardini@ivalsa.cnr.it
  • Magagnotti, CNR IVALSA,Via Biasi 75, S. Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy E-mail: magagnotti@ivalsa.cnr.it
article id 930, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Eugenio Cavallo, Lars Eliasson, Alessio Facello. (2013). Comparing the efficiency of drum and disc chippers. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 2 article id 930. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.930
Keywords: productivity; biomass; wood; energy; fuel
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The study compared the effect of chipper type on productivity, power demand, fuel consumption and product quality. Tests were conducted on two commercial chipper models, a disc and a drum chipper. Both chippers had the same diameter capacity, were applied to the same tractor and fed with the same feedstock types. Fifteen replications were conducted per machine and for each of four different feedstock types, reaching a total of 120 tests. The disc chipper had a higher energy efficiency and used 19% less fuel per unit product, possibly due to its simpler design, integrating comminuting and discharge system in one synergic device. In contrast, the drum chipper was 8% more productive, since it cut with the same energy all along the length of its knives. The drum chipper produced smaller chips, with a higher incidence of fines. Feedstock type had a strong effect on productivity, energy efficiency and product quality. The effect of feedstock type was mainly related to piece size, and may be stronger than the effect of chipper type. Further studies should determine the effect of blade wear on the relative performance of the two chipper types.
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Cavallo, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: e.cavallo@imamoter.cnr.it
  • Eliasson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: lars.eliasson@skogforsk.se
  • Facello, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: a.facello@ima.to.cnr.it
article id 57, category Research article
Corrado Costa, Paolo Menesatti, Raffaele Spinelli. (2012). Performance modelling in forest operations through partial least square regression. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 2 article id 57. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.57
Keywords: chipping; productivity; harvesting; skidding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Partial Least Square (PLS) regression is a recent soft-modelling technique that generalizes and combines features from principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression. It is particularly useful when predicting one or more dependent variables from a large set of independent variables, often collinear. The authors compared the potential of PLS regression and ordinary linear regression for accurate modelling of forest work, with special reference to wood chipping, wood extraction and the continuous harvesting of short rotation coppice. Compared to linear regression, PLS regression allowed producing models that better fit the original data. What is more, it allowed handling collinear variables, facilitating the extraction of sound models from large amounts of field data obtained from commercial forest operations. On the other hand, PLS regression analysis is not as easy to conduct, and produces models that are less user-friendly. By producing alternative models, PLS regression may provide additional – and not alternative – ways of reading the data. Ideally, a comprehensive data analysis could include both ordinary and PLS regression and proceed from their results in order to get a better understanding of the phenomenon under examination. Furthermore, the computational complexity of PLS regression may stimulate interdisciplinary team-building, to the greater benefit of scientific research within the field of forest operations.
  • Costa, CRA ING, Monterotondo Scalo (Roma), Italy E-mail: cc@nn.it
  • Menesatti, CRA ING, Monterotondo Scalo (Roma), Italy E-mail: pm@nn.it
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
article id 33, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Natascia Magagnotti, Giuseppe Paletto, Christian Preti. (2011). Determining the impact of some wood characteristics on the performance of a mobile chipper. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 33. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.33
Keywords: chipping; productivity; biomass; fuel consumption
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
A study was conducted to determine the effect of some wood characteristics such as species, moisture content and tree part on the performance and product quality offered by a mobile industrial chipper, of the type commonly used for roadside chipping. Two main species, two tree parts and two moisture content levels were combined in a factorial design yielding 8 treatments, each replicated 5 or 6 times. A flow meter was installed on the chipper engine, and all chips produced were weighed and sampled for moisture content and particle size distribution. The results indicated that some wood characteristics such as species and moisture content have a secondary effect on chipper productivity and fuel consumption, which are primarily controlled by piece size. In particular, fuel consumption per unit dry mass seem to be rather constant and in the range of 3.2 l per oven dry ton. Moisture content and tree part may have a significant effect on the particle size distribution of chips. Of course, these results were only verified for the species used in the test and for industrial chippers, and may change if substantially different species or machines are used.
  • Spinelli, CNR IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Magagnotti, CNR IVALSA, Via Biasi 75, S. Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy E-mail: nm@nn.it
  • Paletto, CNR IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino, Italy E-mail: gp@nn.it
  • Preti, CNR IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino, Italy E-mail: cp@nn.it
article id 365, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Carla Nati, Natascia Magagnotti. (2005). Harvesting and transport of root biomass from fast-growing poplar plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 365. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.365
Keywords: productivity; biomass; logistics; harvesting; root recovery; cost
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Recovery of tree root biomass can be attractive, since the stump-root system represents a substantial portion of the tree mass and its removal may prove instrumental to re-cultivation. Most available studies concern Nordic technologies, particularly suited to mature conifer stands. Unlike spruce, plantation poplar develops a deep taproot, whose extraction requires completely different methods. The aim of the study was to investigate poplar root recovery operations in plantations with time studies, and to determine the productivity and delivery costs of the operations. Seven operation systems developed to work with poplar plantations in Italian conditions were studied. Extraction and cleaning units were based on general-purpose prime movers. Under favourable conditions extraction and cleaning units achieved a very high productivity: 150 stumps per hour for the extraction unit and 170 for the cleaning unit. Delivered cost varied widely, ranging from 28 to 66 Euros Mg–1. Transportation was the most expensive single work task. It accounted for about 40% of the total recovery cost. Extraction and cleaning contributed approximately 25% each to the total cost, and loading 9%. Guidelines to recovery system improvement and efficient operation are provided.
  • Spinelli, CNR/IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano - Palazzo F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Nati, CNR/IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano - Palazzo F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: cn@nn.it
  • Magagnotti, CNR/IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano - Palazzo F, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy E-mail: nm@nn.it
article id 437, category Research article
Raffaele Spinelli, Philip M. O. Owende, Shane M. Ward, Maximiano Tornero. (2004). Comparison of short-wood forwarding systems used in Iberia. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 437. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.437
Keywords: Eucalyptus; forwarding; site disturbance; cut-to-length harvesting
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Spinelli, CNR - Timber and Tree Institute, Via Madonna del Piano - Pal. F, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; University College Dublin, Ireland E-mail: spinelli@ivalsa.cnr.it (email)
  • Owende, Dept. of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland E-mail: pmoo@nn.ie
  • Ward, Dept. of Agricultural and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland E-mail: smw@nn.ie
  • Tornero, Servicios Forestales SA, Ctra. SE-184 Km 0.63, E-41970 Santiponce, Sevilla, Spain E-mail: mt@nn.es

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