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Articles containing the keyword 'terrestrial laser scanning'

Category : Research article

article id 10712, category Research article
Kenneth Olofsson, Johan Holmgren. (2022). Co-registration of single tree maps and data captured by a moving sensor using stem diameter weighted linking. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 3 article id 10712. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10712
Keywords: airborne laser scanning; terrestrial laser scanning; field plot; mobile laser scanning; simultaneous location and mapping; stem map
Highlights: A stem diameter weighted linking algorithm for tree maps was introduced which improves linking accuracy; A new simultaneous location and mapping-based co-registration method for stem maps measured with moving sensors was introduced that operates with high linking accuracy.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A new method for the co-registration of single tree data in forest stands and forest plots applicable to static as well as dynamic data capture is presented. This method consists of a stem diameter weighted linking algorithm that improves the linking accuracy when operating on diverse diameter stands with stem position errors in the single tree detectors. A co-registration quality metric threshold, QT, is also introduced which makes it possible to discriminate between correct and incorrect stem map co-registrations with high probability (>99%). These two features are combined to a simultaneous location and mapping-based co-registration method that operates with high linking accuracy and that can handle sensors with drifting errors and signal bias. A test with simulated data shows that the method has an 89.35% detection rate. The statistics of different settings in a simulation study are presented, where the effect of stem density and position errors were investigated. A test case with real sensor data from a forest stand shows that the average nearest neighbor distances decreased from 1.90 m to 0.51 m, which indicates the feasibility of this method.

  • Olofsson, Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2836-2316 E-mail: kenneth.olofsson@slu.se (email)
  • Holmgren, Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7112-8015 E-mail: johan.holmgren@slu.se
article id 10269, category Research article
Annika Kangas, Helena M. Henttonen, Timo P. Pitkänen, Sakari Sarkkola, Juha Heikkinen. (2020). Re-calibrating stem volume models – is there change in the tree trunk form from the 1970s to the 2010s in Finland? Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 4 article id 10269. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10269
Keywords: TLS; OLS; regression; terrestrial laser scanning
Highlights: TLS data showed that trunk form has changed in Finland from the 1970s; Significant differences were observed for all tree species; The trees in TLS data are on average more slender than in the old data.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The tree stem volume models of Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver and downy birch currently used in Finland are based on data collected during 1968–1972. These models include four different formulations of a volume model, with three different combinations of independent variables: 1) diameter at height of 1.3 m above ground (dbh), 2) dbh and tree height (h) and 3) dbh, h and upper diameter at height of 6 m (d6). In recent National Forest Inventories of Finland, a difference in the mean volume prediction between the models with and without the upper diameter as predictor has been observed. To analyze the causes of this difference, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to acquire a large dataset in Finland during 2017–2018. Field-measured predictors and volumes predicted using spline functions fitted to the TLS data were used to re-calibrate the current volume models. The trunk form is different in these two datasets. The form height is larger in the new data for all diameter classes, which indicates that the tree trunks are more slender than they used to be. One probable reason for this change is the increase in stand densities, which is at least partly due to changed forest management. In models with both dbh and h as predictors, the volume is smaller a given h class in the data new data than in the old data, and vice versa for the diameter classes. The differences between the old and new models were largest with pine and smallest with birch.

  • Kangas, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8637-5668 E-mail: annika.kangas@luke.fi (email)
  • Henttonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: helena.henttonen@luke.fi
  • Pitkänen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5389-8713 E-mail: timo.p.pitkanen@luke.fi
  • Sarkkola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: sakari.sarkkola@luke.fi
  • Heikkinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3527-774X E-mail: juha.heikkinen@luke.fi

Category : Research note

article id 10533, category Research note
Daniel Schraik, Aarne Hovi, Miina Rautiainen. (2021). Estimating cover fraction from TLS return intensity in coniferous and broadleaved tree shoots. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 4 article id 10533. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10533
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; leaf area; lidar intensity; physically-based; voxel
Highlights: We developed a method to obtain the fraction of TLS pulses’ footprint area covered by a target’s projection area; We tested our method with shoots of Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch; We provide a physically-based framework related to unmeasured variables, and provide a robust statistical framework to deal with uncertainty.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides a unique opportunity to study forest canopy structure and its spatial patterns such as foliage quantity and dispersal. Using TLS point clouds for estimating leaf area density with voxel-based methods is biased by the physical dimensions of laser beams, which violates the common assumption of beams being infinitely thin. Real laser beams have a footprint size larger than several millimeters. This leads to difficulties in estimating leaf area density from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in vegetation, where the target objects can be of similar or even smaller size than the beam footprint. To compensate for this bias, we propose a method to estimate the per-pulse cover fraction, defined as the fraction of laser beams’ footprint area that is covered by vegetation targets, using the LiDAR return intensity and an experimental calibration measurement. We applied this method to a Leica P40 single-return instrument, and report our experimental results. We found that conifer foliage had a lower average per-pulse cover fraction than broadleaved foliage, indicating an increased number of partial hits in conifer foliage. We further discuss limitations of our method that stem from unknown target properties that influence the LiDAR return intensity and highlight potential ways to overcome the limitations and manage the remaining uncertainty. Our method’s output, the per-beam cover fraction, may be useful in a weight function for methods that estimate leaf area density from LiDAR point clouds.

  • Schraik, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7794-3918 E-mail: daniel.schraik@aalto.fi (email)
  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi

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