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Articles containing the keyword 'leaf area'

Category: Article

article id 5141, category Article
Lisbeth Mortensen, Knud V. Weisberg. (1981). A method for measurement of actue leaf injury on tobacco indicator plants. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5141. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15368
Keywords: damages; photography; measuring methods; air pollution; bioindicators; Nicotiana tabacum; leaves; damaged leaf area; ozone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A technique for instrumental scoring of damaged leaves on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) indicator plants caused by ozone in the lower atmosphere is being developed. The leaves are photographed in situ with an integrated unit, which illuminates the leaf from behind and keeps the camera in a well-defined position. By using microfilm and a minus green filter, it is possible to obtain negatives where the necrotic flecks appear as dark spots on a white leaf. The negatives are scanned in a TV-system and the size of the damaged fraction of the leaf is calculated by a microprosessor and is shown as a percentage of the leaf.

  • Mortensen, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Weisberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 174, category Research article
Akihiro Sumida, Taro Nakai, Masahito Yamada, Kiyomi Ono, Shigeru Uemura, Toshihiko Hara. (2009). Ground-based estimation of leaf area index and vertical distribution of leaf area density in a Betula ermanii forest. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 174. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.174
Keywords: allometry; leaf area density; LAI; leaf inclination angle; MacArthur–Horn method; pipe model; Betula ermanii
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
We developed a ground-based method for estimating leaf area index (LAI) and vertical distribution of leaf area density (LAD) for two Betula ermanii plots, combining an allometric method for tree leaf area with the MacArthur–Horn (MH) method using a portable laser rangefinder, including a correction for changes in leaf inclination angle along the vertical gradient measured with a portable digital protractor from a canopy access tower in each plot. Vertical distribution of projected leaf area density obtained by the MH method (LADMH) was transformed to relative distribution for allotting fixed LAI to different heights. Hence, we first developed an allometric method for estimating tree leaf area for LAI determination. Trunk cross-sectional area at branching height (AB) was accurately estimated (r2 = 0.97) from ground-based measurements of tree dimensions. We used this method to apply pipe model allometry between tree leaf area and AB, and estimated LAI (4.56 and 4.57 m2 m–2). We then examined how leaf inclination angle affected estimation of the vertical distribution of actual LAD. Leaf inclination angle measurements revealed that actual LAD in the upper canopy was 1.5–1.8-times higher than LADMH, because of steep leaf inclination, while the correction factor was 1.15–1.25 in the lower canopy. Due to the difference among heights, vertical distribution of LAD estimated with correction for vertical change in leaf inclination was more skewed to the upper canopy than that without correction. We also showed that error in LAD distribution can result if horizontal canopy heterogeneity is neglected when applying the MH method.
  • Sumida, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan E-mail: asumida@lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp (email)
  • Nakai, International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 930 Koyukuk Drive, P.O. Box 757340, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7340, USA E-mail: tn@nn.jp
  • Yamada, International Meteorological & Oceanographic Consultants Co., Ltd. Kawaguchi-cho 2-6528-87, Choshi, Chiba 288-0001, Japan E-mail: my@nn.jp
  • Ono, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan E-mail: ko@nn.jp
  • Uemura, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Tokuda 250, Nayoro, Hokkaido 096-0071, Japan E-mail: su@nn.jp
  • Hara, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan E-mail: th@nn.jp
article id 348, category Research article
Chunyang Li, Xuejiang Zhang, Xingliang Liu, Olavi Luukkanen, Frank Berninger. (2006). Leaf morphological and physiological responses of Quercus aquifolioides along an altitudinal gradient. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 348. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.348
Keywords: carbon isotope composition; leaf nitrogen content; specific leaf area; stomata
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Quercus aquifolioides Rehder & E.H. Wilson, an evergreen alpine and subalpine shrub species, occupies a wide range of habitats on the eastern slopes of the Himalaya in China. In this study, we measured leaf morphology, nitrogen content and carbon isotope composition (as an indicator of water use efficiency) of Q. aquifolioides along an altitudinal gradient. We found that these leaf morphological and physiological responses to altitudinal gradients were non-linear with increasing altitude. Specific leaf area, stomatal length and index increased with increasing altitude below 2800 m, but decreased with increasing altitude above 2800 m. In contrast, leaf nitrogen content per unit area and carbon isotope composition showed opposite change patterns. Specific leaf area seemed to be the most important parameter that determined the carbon isotope composition along the altitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that near 2800 m in altitude could be the optimum zone for growth and development of Q. aquifolioides, and highlight the importance of the influence of altitude in research on plant physiological ecology.
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn (email)
  • Zhang, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P.R. China E-mail: xz@nn.cn
  • Liu, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu 610081, P. R. China E-mail: xl@nn.cn
  • Luukkanen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: ol@nn.fi
  • Berninger, Département des sciences biologiques, Cp 8888 succ centre ville, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal (QC) H3C 3P8, Canada E-mail: fb@nn.ca
article id 431, category Research article
Pauline Stenberg, Miina Rautiainen, Terhikki Manninen, Pekka Voipio, Heikki Smolander. (2004). Reduced simple ratio better than NDVI for estimating LAI in Finnish pine and spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 431. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.431
Keywords: Landsat ETM ; Leaf Area Index; spectral vegetation indices; boreal coniferous forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Estimation of leaf area index (LAI) using spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) was studied based on data from 683 plots on two Scots pine and Norway spruce dominated sites in Finland. The SVIs studied included the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), the simple ratio (SR), and the reduced simple ratio (RSR), and were calculated from Landsat ETM images of the two sites. Regular grids of size 1 km2 with gridpoints placed at 50 m intervals were established at the sites and measurements of LAI using the LAI-2000 instrument were taken at the gridpoints. SVI-LAI relationships were examined at plot scale, where the plots were defined as circular areas of radius 70 m around each gridpoint. Plotwise mean LAI was computed as a weighted average of LAI readings taken around the gridpoints belonging to the plot. Mean LAI for the plots ranged from 0.36 to 3.72 (hemisurface area). All of the studied SVIs showed fair positive correlation with LAI but RSR responded more dynamically to LAI than did SR or NDVI. Especially NDVI showed poor sensitivity to changes in LAI. RSR explained 63% of the variation in LAI when all plots were included (n = 683) and the coefficient of determination rose to 75% when data was restricted to homogeneous plots (n = 381). Maps of estimated LAI using RSR showed good agreement with maps of measured LAI for the two sites.
  • Stenberg, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: pauline.stenberg@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Rautiainen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: mr@nn.fi
  • Manninen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Meteorological research, Ozone and UV radiation research, P.O. Box 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: tm@nn.fi
  • Voipio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: pv@nn.fi
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: hs@nn.fi
article id 530, category Research article
Graham D. Farquhar, Thomas N. Buckley, Jeffrey M. Miller. (2002). Optimal stomatal control in relation to leaf area and nitrogen content. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 530. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.530
Keywords: stomatal conductance; optimal leaf area; optimality theory; resource substitution
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
We introduce the simultaneous optimisation of water-use efficiency and nitrogen-use efficiency of canopy photosynthesis. As a vehicle for this idea we consider the optimal leaf area for a plant in which there is no self-shading among leaves. An emergent result is that canopy assimilation over a day is a scaled sum of daily water use and of photosynthetic nitrogen display. The respective scaling factors are the marginal carbon benefits of extra transpiration and extra such nitrogen, respectively. The simple approach successfully predicts that as available water increases, or evaporative demand decreases, the leaf area should increase, with a concomitant reduction in nitrogen per unit leaf area. The changes in stomatal conductance are therefore less than would occur if leaf area were not to change. As irradiance increases, the modelled leaf area decreases, and nitrogen/leaf area increases. As total available nitrogen increases, leaf area also increases. In all the examples examined, the sharing by leaf area and properties per unit leaf area means that predicted changes in either are less than if predicted in isolation. We suggest that were plant density to be included, it too would further share the response, further diminishing the changes required per unit leaf area.
  • Farquhar, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting and Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia E-mail: farquhar@rsbs.anu.edu.au (email)
  • Buckley, Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting and Environmental Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia E-mail: tnb@nn.au
  • Miller, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia E-mail: jmm@nn.au
article id 575, category Research article
Sylvie Mussche, Roeland Samson, Lieven Nachtergale, An De Schrijver, Raoul Lemeur, Noël Lust. (2001). A comparison of optical and direct methods for monitoring the seasonal dynamics of leaf area index in deciduous forests. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 575. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.575
Keywords: Leaf Area Index; mixed deciduous forest; LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser; hemispherical photography; litter trap
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
During the 1996 growing season the seasonal dynamics of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) were determined by 3 different methods in two forest types: a mixed oak (Quercus robur L.) – beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand and an ash dominated (Fraxinus excelsior L.) stand. The results obtained from the two indirect methods, i.e. hemispherical photography and LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser (Li-COR), were compared with the results of the direct measurement of litter fall collected in litter trap systems. In this study the direct method is considered to be the reference, giving the most accurate LAI-values. Both the hemispherical photography and the LAI-2000 PCA introduced an underestimation of LAI when the actual canopy leaf distribution in the crown layer deviates from a random distribution of leaf area in space as is found in the mixed oak/beech stand. However, when the condition of random leaf distribution is nearly fulfilled (ash stand), the LAI-2000 PCA gave LAI-values which were close to the results obtained from the direct method. Regression curves with R2 > 0.93 could be calculated for both indirect methods.
  • Mussche, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium E-mail: sm@nn.be
  • Samson, Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium E-mail: rs@nn.be
  • Nachtergale, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium E-mail: ln@nn.be
  • De Schrijver, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium E-mail: An.Deschrijver@rug.ac.be (email)
  • Lemeur, Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium E-mail: rl@nn.be
  • Lust, Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, B-9090 Melle, Belgium E-mail: nl@nn.be

Category: Research note

article id 10533, category Research note
Daniel Schraik, Aarne Hovi, Miina Rautiainen. (2021). Estimating cover fraction from TLS return intensity in coniferous and broadleaved tree shoots. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 4 article id 10533. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10533
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; leaf area; lidar intensity; physically-based; voxel
Highlights: We developed a method to obtain the fraction of TLS pulses’ footprint area covered by a target’s projection area; We tested our method with shoots of Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch; We provide a physically-based framework related to unmeasured variables, and provide a robust statistical framework to deal with uncertainty.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides a unique opportunity to study forest canopy structure and its spatial patterns such as foliage quantity and dispersal. Using TLS point clouds for estimating leaf area density with voxel-based methods is biased by the physical dimensions of laser beams, which violates the common assumption of beams being infinitely thin. Real laser beams have a footprint size larger than several millimeters. This leads to difficulties in estimating leaf area density from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in vegetation, where the target objects can be of similar or even smaller size than the beam footprint. To compensate for this bias, we propose a method to estimate the per-pulse cover fraction, defined as the fraction of laser beams’ footprint area that is covered by vegetation targets, using the LiDAR return intensity and an experimental calibration measurement. We applied this method to a Leica P40 single-return instrument, and report our experimental results. We found that conifer foliage had a lower average per-pulse cover fraction than broadleaved foliage, indicating an increased number of partial hits in conifer foliage. We further discuss limitations of our method that stem from unknown target properties that influence the LiDAR return intensity and highlight potential ways to overcome the limitations and manage the remaining uncertainty. Our method’s output, the per-beam cover fraction, may be useful in a weight function for methods that estimate leaf area density from LiDAR point clouds.

  • Schraik, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7794-3918 E-mail: daniel.schraik@aalto.fi (email)
  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 1549, category Research note
Francesco Chianucci, Luca Salvati, Tessa Giannini, Ugo Chiavetta, Piermaria Corona, Andrea Cutini. (2016). Long-term response to thinning in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice stand under conversion to high forest in Central Italy. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1549. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1549
Keywords: continuous cover forestry; thinning; Leaf Area Index; coppice management; Plant Canopy Analyzer
Highlights: Canopy recovery after medium-heavy thinning reveals the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles; Active management practices accelerate the transition from coppice to high forest.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests have a long history of coppicing, but the majority of formerly managed coppices are currently under conversion to high forest. The long time required to achieve conversion requires a long-term perspective to fully understand the implication of the applied conversion practices. In this study, we showed results from a long-term (1992–2014) case-study comparing two management options (natural evolution and periodic thinning) in a beech coppice in conversion to high forest. Leaf area index, litter production, radiation transmittance and growth efficiency taken as relevant stand descriptors, were estimated using both direct and indirect optical methods. Overall, results indicated that beech coppice showed positive and prompt responses to active conversion practices based on periodic medium-heavy thinning. A growth efficiency index showed that tree growth increased as the cutting intensity increased. Results from the case study supported the effectiveness of active conversion management from an economic (timber harvesting) and ecological (higher growth efficiency) point of view.

  • Chianucci, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Forestry Research Centre, viale Santa Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo, Italy ORCID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5688-2060 E-mail: fchianucci@gmail.com (email)
  • Salvati, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, via della Navicella 2–4, 00184 Roma, Italy E-mail: bayes00@yahoo.it
  • Giannini, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Forestry Research Centre, viale Santa Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo, Italy E-mail: tessa.giannini@entecra.it
  • Chiavetta, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Forestry Research Centre, viale Santa Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo, Italy E-mail: ugo.chiavetta@entecra.it
  • Corona, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Forestry Research Centre, viale Santa Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo, Italy E-mail: piermaria.corona@unitus.it
  • Cutini, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria – Forestry Research Centre, viale Santa Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo, Italy E-mail: andrea.cutini@entecra.it

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