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Articles by Teijo Palander

Category : Article

article id 5617, category Article
Teijo Palander. (1997). A local DLP-GIS-LP system for geographically decentralized wood procurement planning and decision making. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5617. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8518
Keywords: Finland; GIS; linear programming; dynamic linear programming; DLP; geographical decentralization; local wood procurement; participatory planning; wood procurement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Linear programming (LP) is an important method for allocation of wood inventory stock. It is, for instance, used alone in tactical planning systems, which currently are in wide use at the higher hierarchical level in the functionally decentralized planning of the Finnish forest industry. Unfortunately, LP as a solution method has not been capable of handling spatial data that seem to characterize planning systems in geographical decentralization. In the present study, GIS was used to assimilate data from different wood procurement functions, to calculate transportation distances and cost figures, and to write the data in ASCII files, which were then used as input for the LP model. Using the experiments and methods of GIS on a planning system developed according to participatory planning, the results of this study suggest that the participatory method was faster than the conventional LP method, when solved using actual data. The participatory method was also capable of providing the same global optimum for a wood allocation problem. The implications of these results for improving operational and tactical planning of wood procurement in Finland are discussed.

  • Palander, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 10752, category Research article
Oiva Hiltunen, Ville Hallikainen, Teijo Palander. (2023). Analysing the groundwater level and its determinants in a drained peatland forest: a case study in South Lapland, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 57 no. 1 article id 10752. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10752
Keywords: peatland; groundwater level; load-bearing capacity; subsoil
Highlights: Mineral subsoils under a peat layer (less than 1 m) affect the groundwater level; During average precipitation, silty subsoil often makes groundwater level remain too high for timber haulage; If the subsoil is sandy and the peat layer is thin, the groundwater level gets lower; The amount of stand evapotranspiration alone is not enough to keep the groundwater level low enough.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In southern Lapland, 70% of drained peatland forests have a peat layer thickness of less than one metre. On these sites, the question is how the subsoil under the peat affects groundwater level and thus timber harvesting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the peat layer (<1 m) and subsoil on the groundwater level and its variation during the growing season (non-frost) by modelling the factors affecting water level. In sandy soils, the groundwater level rose by 20 cm when the peat layer thickness increased from 20 to 70 cm. In silty soils the effect of the peat thickness on groundwater remained minor. When the subsoil was sand or coarser, the groundwater level was usually deeper than when it was silty or finer. The effect of stand volume (m–3 ha–1) on the groundwater level was rather weak albeit significant. The model explained a significant part of the groundwater surface variation, with a marginal coefficient of determination (R2) of 68%. It seems that the rutting of roads could be avoided in late summer if the precipitation is remarkably lower during that period, or if the subsoil is sandy with thin peat layer on top of it. Because the groundwater level affects the load-bearing capacity of timber-harvesting machinery, it is important to study this issue in more detail in the future.

  • Hiltunen, Lapland University of Applied Sciences, Jokiväylä 11, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: oivah@student.uef.fi (email)
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Ounasjoentie 6, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Palander, The University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science, Forestry and Technology, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9284-5443 E-mail: teijo.s.palander@uef.fi
article id 10798, category Research article
Perttu Anttila, Johannes Ojala, Teijo Palander, Kari Väätäinen. (2023). The effect of road characteristics on timber truck driving speed and fuel consumption based on visual interpretation of road database and data from fleet management system. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 10798. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10798
Keywords: fuel consumption; forest roads; CAN bus; forest logistics; greenhouse gas emissions; log truck; road classes
Highlights: Finnish road and pavement classes explain driving speed and fuel consumption of a timber truck; Other significant explanatory variables include the number of road crossings, season, proportion of distance travelled with a loader, and total laden mass of a truck; In the future, higher-resolution tracking data is needed to construct generalisable models for 76-tonne vehicles.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Road transport produces 90% of greenhouse gas emissions in timber transport in Finland. It is therefore necessary to understand the factors that affect driving speed, fuel consumption, and ultimately, emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of road characteristics on timber truck driving speed and fuel consumption. Data from the fleet management and transport management systems of two timber trucks were collected over a year. A sample of 104 trips was drawn, and the tracking points were overlaid on the road data in a geographical information system. Thereafter, work phases were determined for the points, and they were visually classified into road and pavement classes. Subsequently, the data of 80 trips were utilised in regression analysis to further study the effects of the visually interpreted variables on driving speed and fuel consumption. Fuel consumption was explained by the proportion of forest roads and distance travelled with a loader, and the number of crossings and season when driving without a load. When driving with a load, both asphalt and gravel pavements decreased consumption, in contrast to an unpaved road. Crossings increased fuel consumption, as did the winter and spring months, and the total laden mass of the truck. In conclusion, the study showed that the functional Finnish road and pavement classes can be used to predict driving speed and fuel consumption.

  • Anttila, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6131-392X E-mail: perttu.anttila@luke.fi (email)
  • Ojala, UPM Metsä, Sirkkalantie 13 b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: johannes.ojala@upm.com
  • Palander, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland (UEF), Yliopistokatu 7, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9284-5443 E-mail: teijo.s.palander@uef.fi
  • Väätäinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6886-0432 E-mail: kari.vaatainen@luke.fi
article id 144, category Research article
Markku Oikari, Kalle Kärhä, Teijo Palander, Heikki Pajuoja, Heikki Ovaskainen. (2010). Analyzing the views of wood harvesting professionals related to the approaches for increasing the cost-efficiency of wood harvesting from young stands. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 144. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.144
Keywords: cost-efficiency; energy wood; early thinnings; industrial roundwood; costs; gap analysis; opinion survey
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
A lot of viable guidelines are currently available for more cost-effective harvesting of energy wood and industrial roundwood (i.e. pulpwood) from young stands. The study ranked the proposed potential approaches for increasing the cost-efficiency of small-diameter (d1.3 < 10 cm) energy wood and industrial roundwood harvesting from early thinnings. Research data, based on a total of 40 personal interviews, was collected in early 2008. The interviewees were divided into four wood harvesting professional groups: 1) Managers in wood procurement organizations, 2) Forest machine contractors, 3) Forest machine manufacturers and vendors, and 4) Wood harvesting researchers. In the opinion of the respondents, there is great potential to increase the cost-efficiency of wood harvesting through improving harvesting conditions (i.e. effective tending of seedling stands, delaying harvesting operations, and pre-clearance of dense undergrowth). The interviewees also underlined that harvesting methods can be rationalized, e.g. multiple-tree handling in industrial roundwood cuttings, crane scale measurement, integrated wood harvesting, and careful selection of stands for harvesting. The strong message given by the interviewees was that the education of forest machine operators must be made more effective in the future. There would be significant possibilities for cost savings in young stands, if methods and techniques with the most potential were utilized completely in wood harvesting.
  • Oikari, Karelwood, Kontiolahti, Finland E-mail: markku.oikari@karelwood.com (email)
  • Kärhä, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland E-mail: kk@nn.fi
  • Palander, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: tp@nn.fi
  • Pajuoja, Metsäteho Oy, Helsinki, Finland E-mail: hp@nn.fi
  • Ovaskainen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: ho@nn.fi
article id 387, category Research article
Sanna Laukkanen, Teijo Palander, Jyrki Kangas, Annika Kangas. (2005). Evaluation of the multicriteria approval method for timber-harvesting group decision support. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 2 article id 387. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.387
Keywords: group decision support; multicriteria approval; timber-harvesting planning; voting methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The decision support methods most often used in timber-harvesting planning are based on a single criterion. In this study, a voting-theory-based method called multicriteria approval (MA) is introduced to the group decision support of timber-harvesting. The use of voting methods alleviates the problems caused by the multitude of decision objectives involved in forestry decision-making and by the poor quality of information concerning both the preferences of decision-makers and the evaluation of decision alternatives with respect to the objectives often faced in practical timber-harvesting planning. In the case study, the tactical forest management plan of a forest holding jointly owned by three people was specified at the operative timber-harvesting level. The task was to find the best actual operative alternatives for the harvesting that had been proposed in the tactical plan. These timber-harvesting alternatives were combinations of treatment, timber-harvesting system and the timing of logging. Forest owners established multiple criteria under which the alternatives were evaluated. Two versions of MA were tested, one of them based on individual decision analyses and other one based on a composite analysis. The first was markedly modified from the original MA, combining properties of MA and Borda count voting. The other was an original MA with the order of importance for criteria estimated either using Borda count or cumulative voting. The results of the tested MA versions produced were very similar to each other. MA was found to be a useful tool for the group decision support of timber-harvesting.
  • Laukkanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: sanna.laukkanen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Palander, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: tp@nn.fi
  • Kangas, UPM-Kymmene Forest, P.O. Box 32, FI-37601 Valkeakoski, Finland E-mail: jk@nn.fi
  • Kangas, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail: ak@nn.fi
article id 506, category Research article
Teijo Palander, Katja Turunen, Sanna Laukkanen. (2003). Attitude of Finnish timber buyers towards implementation of a forest computer visualisation. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 506. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.506
Keywords: change resistance; competence; forest computer visualisation; timber trade
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Timber buyers’ opinions as regards forest computer visualisation are studied. The results indicated that timber buyers are still rather conventional in their computer use since they mainly use only the information system of their own company. The majority of the buyers perceived computer visualisation to be slightly useful for their work, or they had no opinion concerning the usefulness of it. One third of the buyers considered computer visualisation to be a quality factor for timber trade, and the majority were willing to use it if a program is going to adopt by their company. In analysis, different personal characteristics were found for three timber buyer groups: qualified, neutral and reluctant. Qualified buyers were the largest one, about half of the buyers belonging to this group. The greatest barriers to adopting a positive attitude to computer visualisation turned out to be weak computer skills and a general lack of interest in computer use. On the other side, it was found that organisational factors did not influence the buyers’ computer skills or attitudes towards visualisation. The results of this study can be utilised by timber buying organisation in ensuring the successful adoption of a new computer system.
  • Palander, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: teijo.palander@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Turunen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: kt@nn.fi
  • Laukkanen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: sl@nn.fi

Category : Review article

article id 546, category Review article
Teijo Palander, Mari Toivonen, Sanna Laukkanen. (2002). GroupWare and group decision support systems for wood procurement organisation. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 546. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.546
Keywords: collaboration; teamwork-based organisation; group decision-making; communication
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Many kinds of decision support systems (DSSs) have been suggested for use of wood procurement organisations, but few meet the real needs of team managers in group decision-making process. Therefore, it has been concluded that the important features of group decision support systems (GDSSs) should be developed for teamwork-based organisations. Electronic meeting systems (EMSs), Computer-aided Visualisations (CAVs) and heuristics as well as other numerical approaches as combined with optimisation seem to be some of the most promising elements of GroupWare, because decisions are made in distributed groups and they deal with human behaviour. Relations between GDSSs and spontaneous decision conferencing (SDC) for modern organisations are also discussed, and suggestions for future research of management approaches are also given.
  • Palander, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: teijo.palander@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
  • Toivonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: mt@nn.fi
  • Laukkanen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: sl@nn.fi

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