Current issue: 57(3)

Under compilation: 58(1)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'timber trade'

Category : Article

article id 5431, category Article
Juha Siitonen. (1990). Potential forest pest beetles conveyed to Finland on timber imported from the Soviet Union. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5431.
Keywords: Finland; forest pests; timber trade; Scolytidae; Soviet Union; pest introduction; timber import
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Coniferous timber imported by rail from the Soviet Union in Finland was studied for the presence of potential forest and timber pest beetles. Systematic samples of fourteen lots of pine pulpwood were examined. Seven of the lots originated from the European parts of the Soviet Union and seven from Siberia. 23 species of Scolytidae and about 18 other phloeophagous species were found including three species new for Finland: Phaenops guttulata (Buprestidae), Ips subelongatus and Orthotomicus erosus (Scolytidae).

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Siitonen, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4554, category Article
Ahti Mecklin. (1939). Lainsäädäntö puutavaran mittauksesta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4554.
English title: Timber measurement legislation.
Original keywords: metsäopetus; puutavara; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; puukauppa; lainsäädäntö; jatkokoulutus; puutavaranmittaus
English keywords: timber trade; forest education; professional development courses; timber sales; timber measurement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the Timber Measurement Act, adopted in 1938, and its application.

  • Mecklin, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Article

article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403.
Keywords: sawn timber; timber trade; export; sawmills; sawmilling industry; timber agents
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, E-mail: lr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7603, category Article
Olli Makkonen. (1969). Ancient forestry : A historical study. Part II, The procurement and trade of forest products. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 95 article id 7603.
Keywords: logging; timber trade; history; wood transportation; roman times
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present paper presents a study on the works of ancient writers that deal with trees, forests and the use of forests before the time of actual forest sciences. The work describes the development of knowledge pertaining to the forest and trees and the progress made on utilizing them. This second part of a series of two articles is concerned with logging, transportation and trade of timber, as well as procurement and trade of other forest products. These activities have been practiced as long as the history of mankind is known.

The article introduces the most important ancient written sources from the standpoint of the subject of the article, and related modern literature. The second part describes the texts concerning felling and primary conversion, and skidding and transportation. The third part concentrates on timber trade, and the fourth on the procurement and trade of other forest products.

  • Makkonen, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 10555, category Research article
Ferréol Berendt, Felix Wolfgramm, Tobias Cremer. (2021). Reliability of photo-optical measurements of log stack gross volume. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 3 article id 10555.
Keywords: photogrammetry; timber trade; logistic; volume estimation; wood pile
Highlights: Gross volume estimations of larger log stacks showed a smaller deviation compared to those of piles with smaller volumes; Log stack quality affects estimation accuracy; The deviations between the manual section-wise estimations were of similar amplitude as those for the photo-optical estimations.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In terms of assessing economic impact, one of the most important elements in the wood supply chain is the measurement of round wood. Besides the one-by-one measurement of logs, logs are often measured when stacked at the forest road. The gross stacked volume includes the volume of the wood, bark and airspace and is widely used for industrial wood assortments. The increasing international attention given to photo-optical measurement systems for portable devices is due to their simplicity of use and efficiency. The aim of this study was to compare the gross volumes of hardwood log stacks measured using one widespread photo-optical app with two manual section-wise volume estimations of log stacks based on the German framework agreement for timber trade (RVR). The manual volume estimations were done starting from the left (RVRleft) and right (RVRright) sides of the log stacks. The results showed an average deviation of the photo-optical gross volume estimation in comparison to the manual estimation of –2.09% (RVRleft) and –3.66% (RVRright) while the deviation between RVRleft and RVRright was +2.54%. However, the log stack gross volume had a highly significant effect on the deviation and better accuracy with smaller deviation were reached for larger log stacks. Moreover, results indicated that the gross volume estimations of higher quality log stacks were closer for the three analyzed methods compared to estimations of poor-quality log stacks.

  • Berendt, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Wolfgramm, Landesforst MV Anstalt des öffentlichen Rechts, Forstamt Billenhagen, 18182 Blankenhagen, Germany E-mail:
  • Cremer, Department of Forest Utilization and Timber Markets, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany E-mail:
article id 1054, category Research article
Karin Kolis, Juhana Hiironen, Esa Ärölä, Arvo Vitikainen. (2014). Effects of sale-specific factors on stumpage prices in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 3 article id 1054.
Keywords: pulpwood; timber trade; standing timber sales; hedonic price; sawlogs; non-industrial forest owners
Highlights: Data on 4824 individual sales were used to estimate which factors affect stumpage prices; The time of sale, seasonal harvest restrictions, the location and the assortment affected prices; Larger total volumes and shorter forest haulage distances raised unit prices; A higher percentage of the assortment and percentage of sawlogs within the sale corresponded to higher prices.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Buyers of standing timber take not only the market situation but also the harvest costs into consideration when making purchase offers. In Finland, 85% of all timber is sold as standing timber, but there is little information for forest owners and third parties regarding how differences in harvest costs are reflected in the stumpage prices. This article analyses the relationship between sale-specific factors and stumpage prices in Finland. Data on 4824 standing timber sales between 2008 and 2012 were gathered from five local Forest Management Associations. Regression analyses were run on the stumpage prices (euros m–3) paid for sawlogs and pulpwood. Seasonal harvest restrictions, the volume of the sale and the timber assortment influenced stumpage prices, as did the presence of forest damages. Prices also differed over time and between locations. Furthermore, the forest haulage distance was statistically significant for pulpwood. The results suggest that the size of the individual sales and the composition of assortments affect the income owners earn from their forest. The results can be used to estimate stumpage prices and the monetary impacts on forest owners of procedures such as forest road network planning and land consolidation, as well as for valuation of forests.
  • Kolis, Aalto University, Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hiironen, Aalto University, Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail:
  • Ärölä, National Land Survey of Finland, Production Support Services, P.O. Box 84, FI-00521 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Vitikainen, Aalto University, Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland E-mail:
article id 506, category Research article
Teijo Palander, Katja Turunen, Sanna Laukkanen. (2003). Attitude of Finnish timber buyers towards implementation of a forest computer visualisation. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 506.
Keywords: change resistance; competence; forest computer visualisation; timber trade
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Timber buyers’ opinions as regards forest computer visualisation are studied. The results indicated that timber buyers are still rather conventional in their computer use since they mainly use only the information system of their own company. The majority of the buyers perceived computer visualisation to be slightly useful for their work, or they had no opinion concerning the usefulness of it. One third of the buyers considered computer visualisation to be a quality factor for timber trade, and the majority were willing to use it if a program is going to adopt by their company. In analysis, different personal characteristics were found for three timber buyer groups: qualified, neutral and reluctant. Qualified buyers were the largest one, about half of the buyers belonging to this group. The greatest barriers to adopting a positive attitude to computer visualisation turned out to be weak computer skills and a general lack of interest in computer use. On the other side, it was found that organisational factors did not influence the buyers’ computer skills or attitudes towards visualisation. The results of this study can be utilised by timber buying organisation in ensuring the successful adoption of a new computer system.
  • Palander, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Turunen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Laukkanen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 698, category Research article
Kalle Kärhä, Sami Oinas. (1998). Satisfaction and company loyalty as expressed by non-industrial private forest owners towards timber procurement organizations in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 698.
Keywords: timber trade; company loyalty; decision support system (DSS); non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owner; satisfaction; timber procurement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The satisfaction and company loyalty as expressed by non-industrial, private forest (NIPF) owners towards timber procurement organizations were clarified via a mail questionnaire. The results denoted that there is a positive correlation between the levels of forest owners’ expectations (EXP) and perceived performance (PERF). In addition, the lower EXP and the higher PERF were, the greater was the overall satisfaction index (SAT). About two thirds of forest owners were characterized by a negative SAT value or then they were dissatisfied with the performance of the procurement organization in their last timber-sales transaction. Furthermore, the results obtained indicated that the SAT index significantly influences the company loyalty expressed by NIPF owners – their willingness to give favourable reports of the company to the others, and their willingness to engage in future timber-sales transactions with the same company. Nonetheless, the SAT index did not affect the market share of a particular company, and this could be partly accounted for by the similar level of performance among the companies and the lack of competition in the timber trade. Finally, the results revealed several dimensions of timber procurement, and some seller segments to which companies could pay more attention to in order to be able to achieve better satisfaction levels and the loyalty of NIPF owners in the future. One approach to successfully addressing these challenges could be the adopting of a satisfaction decision support system (SatDSS).
  • Kärhä, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Oinas, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:

Click this link to register to Silva Fennica.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles