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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'sprout'

Category : Article

article id 5164, category Article
Juhani Kangas, Tapio Klen. (1982). Raivaussahan kantokäsittelylaitteen käyttäjän altistuminen torjunta-aineille. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5164.
English title: Exposure of forest workers to herbicides.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työturvallisuus; torjunta-aineet; raivaussahat; vesakontorjunta; glyfosaatti; torjunta-aineruiskutus; altistuminen
English keywords: herbicides; brush saw; glyphosate; forest work; occupational health; sprout control; arboricides; chemical brush control; MCPA
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to measure workers’ exposure to MCPA and glyphosate when sprayers connected to the brush saws was used. A non-pressurized sprayer with a pump and a pressurized sprayer where dosage was regulated with manual control were studied. Exposure was measured from the breathing zone and urine samples.

MCPA collected from the breathing zone gathered into alcohol was 0.05 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.02 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.04 mg/m3 (average) for both types of sprayers together.

MCPA in the breathing zone, collected from splashes and fog into a glass fibre filter, was 0.18 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.09 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.12 mg/m3 for both sprayers used together. Glyphosate in the breathing zone, collected into sodium hydroxide was below 0.05 mg/m3.

In five urine samples taken after the work day there was on the average 0.4 mg/l MCPA, while in 21 samples the MCPA contents were under the definition limit (0.2 mg/l).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Klen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown

Category : Article

article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356.
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; Pohjois-Suomi; koivu; uudistuminen; rauduskoivu; hieskoivu; vesominen; vesatalous; juurivesa
English keywords: birch; Betula pendula; coppicing; regeneration; silver birch; sprouting; downy birch; decay; Betula verrucosa
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7628, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Lehvästöruiskutuksen ajoitus kasvukauden aikana. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 181 article id 7628.
English title: The timing of foliage spraying during the growing season.
Original keywords: mänty; herbisidit; taimikonhoito; lehdistöruiskutus; havupuutaimikot
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; herbicides; seedling stands; MCPA; spraying of foliage; clearing of seedling stands; Roundup; DM; softwood seedling stand; hardwood sprouts
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An attempt was made in the study to determine the annual periods available for foliage spraying when cleaning Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated seedling stands. The study was made in nine experimental fields which were established in different parts of Finland. The spraying was applied throughout the growing season by DM, MCPA and Roundup. The results were inventoried one year after the treatments.

The results showed that there were big differences both in the destruction of hardwood sprouts and in the survival of pine seedlings due to the time period of the spraying. Threshold points were observed in the range of effect of DM and MCPA. By means of these it is possible to time the spraying treatments in such a way that there remains only slight damage to pine, but hardwood sprouts are destroyed totally. The results varied with Roundup so much, among other things due to rain, that such threshold points could not be determined. This preparation both had a milder effect on the hardwood seedlings and caused slighter damage to pine than the other preparations.

In Sodankylä in Northern Finland, the pines attained a good resistance to arboricides when the efficient temperature sum of the growing season was 550, but in Punkaharju in Central Finland only when it was 850. The seed provenance of the seedlings had an effect on the resistance. The threshold temperature sums of resistance in pine were on the average 70–74% from the long-term average number of degree days at the origin of the seed. The effect on the hardwood trees grew weaker as the long-term average was filled. Resistance of pine followed with a specific lag the lignification of the shoot and the ceasing of the growth of the needles.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pohjola, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown

Category : Research article

article id 1694, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen, Katja Hakkarainen, Henri Kaksonen. (2017). Wood anatomy of seed and basal bud originated downy birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) grown at four different sites. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 1 article id 1694.
Keywords: fibre; xylem; parenchyma; ray; vessel; sprout; wood structure
Highlights: Young xylem of sprouts did not clearly show more mature characteristics than that of seedlings; Marked differences in xylem structure could be observed between growing sites.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In trees, xylem must fulfil three important tasks: conducting water to leaves, storing nutrients and water, and supporting the trunk. The origin of the trunk, i.e., seed or basal bud that forms sprouts, and the growth site may affect xylem anatomy, differences of which can affect successful growth of trees. Both seedlings and sprouts of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) from four different growth sites with two different soil media, peat and mineral soil, were studied. The diameter of fibres and vessels and the thickness of the double fibre wall were measured, and the number of vessels, rays and axial parenchyma cells was counted. The fibre wall:lumen ratio, vessel percentage area and vessel size:number ratio were calculated. Xylem from sprouts showed only occasionally more mature characteristics than that of seedlings. The number of rays was similar at all four sites, but differences were observed in all other studied characteristics between sites, particularly if soil type was different. The vessel size and number correlated with the number of axial parenchyma cells in juvenile wood, which emphasises the importance of their connections with storage cells particularly at this stage of growth. Good water conductivity was connected with weaker wood, particularly in maturing wood.

  • Luostarinen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hakkarainen, Natural Resources Institute of Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Kaksonen, School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 452, category Research article
Catherine Ky-Dembele, Mulualem Tigabu, Jules Bayala, Patrice Savadogo, Issaka Joseph Boussim, Per Christer Odén. (2010). Clonal propagation of Detarium microcarpum from root cuttings. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 452.
Keywords: Burkina Faso; sprouting efficiency; rootling; vegetative propagation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Detarium microcarpum is a valuable tree species for fuelwood, timber, food and medicine in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its population is dwindling due to overexploitation, its seedlings’ low survival rate and slow growth. Vegetative propagation might enhance both survival and growth, but to date a successful clonal method does not exist for D. microcarpum. We conducted four experiments to examine the effects of propagation environment (high versus low humidity), cutting length and diameter, alignment of root segments (horizontal versus vertical) and distance from the root collar of donors on the regeneration ability of root segments collected from field-grown D. microcarpum trees in Burkina Faso. The size of root segments significantly affected their regeneration ability, while alignment had no effect. Sprouting was possible from 10 and 20-cm long segments of 15–60 mm diameter with 7–43% sprouting efficiency and multiple shoots while 5 cm long segments were unsuitable with 0–3% sprouting efficiency. Cuttings maintained at low humidity produced larger diameter sprouts than those in greenhouse. All cuttings showed strong polarity with most of the shoots developing at the proximal end. Rootlings from 20 cm root segments produced more new roots (0.62 ± 0.08 g) than those from 10 cm segments (0.34 ± 0.09 g), but they were similar for sprout and leaf growth. We conclude that lateral roots of field-grown mature trees can be used to produce rootlings in a nursery. Since this study is the first attempt to propagate D. microcarpum from root cuttings, further investigations are required to optimize the technique.
  • Ky-Dembele, Département Productions Forestières, Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 03 BP 7047 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso & Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 101, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ( E-mail: (email)
  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 101, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
  • Bayala, World Agroforestry Centre, West Africa and Centre Regional Office, Sahel Node, BP E5118 Bamako, Mali E-mail:
  • Savadogo, Département Productions Forestières, Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 03 BP 7047 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso & Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 101, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
  • Boussim, Université de Ouagadougou, Unité de Formation et Recherche en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, 03 BP 7021, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso E-mail:
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 101, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
article id 146, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Juho Rantala, Timo Saksa, Pertti Harstela. (2010). Effect of soil preparation method on economic result of Norway spruce regeneration chain. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 146.
Keywords: Picea abies; soil preparation; cleaning; disc trenching; forestry investment analysis; pre-commercial thinning; regeneration chain; spot mounding; sprouting
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Economic result of forest regeneration chains, based either on spot mounding or on disc trenching and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seedlings, were clarified and compared to each other. First, effects of soil preparation method on early development of Norway spruce stands were measured from field experiments. Second, the effects of soil preparation method on stand level management programs were modelled. The modelling was based on growth simulation and investment calculations. The soil preparation methods substantially affected early development of a stand. The density of the removed trees in early cleaning was 56% higher on the disc-trenched area compared to the spot-mounded area. The difference was especially high (120%), close by (< 25 cm) the remained spruce seedlings. There was also a difference between the methods in the growth of crop spruces; at biological age of 8 years, the mean height of spruce was 110 cm on the spot-mounded area and 68 cm on the disc-trenched area. The differences led to divergent management programs between the areas. The disc-trenched area needed three young stand management operations whereas two was enough at the spot-mounded area. Although disc trenching is a less expensive method than spot mounding, the total management costs were higher in disc trenching than in spot mounding. Furthermore, incomes from the first commercial thinning were higher when regeneration based on spot mounding. At the interest rate of 3%, the investment in spot mounding had 329 EUR ha–1 higher net present value than the investment in disc trenching.
  • Uotila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Rantala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Harstela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:

Category : Research note

article id 10195, category Research note
Tiina Laine, Leena Hamberg, Veli-Matti Saarinen, Timo Saksa. (2019). The efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum against sprouting of deciduous species after mechanized pre-commercial thinning. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10195.
Keywords: vegetation management; silviculture; mechanization; Chondrostereum purpureum; fungal treatment; stump sprouts
Highlights: Fungal treatments increased stump mortality compared to the control (cutting only); The fungal treatment did not decrease the number of sprouts per stump; Application during mechanized pre-commercial thinning did not yield as high stump mortalities as in earlier treatments performed manually.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The use of a white-rot fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar, as a biocontrol agent against sprouting has been studied with good results. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of two pre-commercial thinning machines, Tehojätkä and Mense, to spread an inoculum of C. purpureum as a biocontrol agent on freshly cut birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), European aspen (Populus tremula L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), and goat willow (Salix caprea L.) stumps (the fungal treatment) and compare that to the control (cutting only, done by Tehojätkä). Efficacy was investigated in terms of stump mortality and the number of sprouts per stump. This study was conducted in one stand and sprouting was investigated for three years after treatment. The fungal treatment resulted in higher mortality of stumps (34.0% for Tehojätkä and 41.5% for Mense after three years), compared to the control (13.4%). However, the fungal treatment did not decrease the number of sprouts per stump compared to the control. The low occurrence of basidiomata indicates that the accuracy of the spreading mechanism was not satisfactory, causing low mortality figures for the fungal treatment compared to previous studies. In the future, this mechanized method may provide a promising alternative in sprout control if the spreading mechanisms, the accuracy of the treatment, and consequently the efficacy could be improved.

  • Laine, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Hamberg, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Saarinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:

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