Current issue: 57(1)

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Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'reforestation'

Category: Article

article id 5600, category Article
Anton K. Chtchoukine. (1996). North European platyphyllous forests: biodiversity dynamics and climate changes in northwest European Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5600.
Keywords: biodiversity; reforestation; climatic change; tree species composition; broadleaved forests; deciduous forests
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Distribution, biodiversity and reforestation dynamics of the platyphyllous forests in the Northwest European Russia were investigated. Data assembled from 21 landscape regions (250–350 km2 each) show special features of small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill., Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), mountain elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and English oak (Qurecus robur L.) reforestation during the last two decades. New tendencies were found for the taiga areas with natural Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) vegetation. Natural platyphyllous reforestation in cut spruce areas poses as supposed a special question for forest management policy in the relationship to global climate changes. Feasible unsustainability of the common types of succession (Norway spruce - European birch (Betula pendula Roth); Norway spruce - European aspen (Populus tremula L.)) is discussed. Biodiversity of herbs, shrubs and tree species of platyphyllous forests is high and complex and is situated in 4–15 old-growth relics in each landscape region. Low-level genotype heterogeneity of nemoral flora species of such isolated populations is presumed. Special biodiversity conservation regulations are proposed.

  • Chtchoukine, E-mail: ac@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5363, category Article
Veli Pohjonen, Timo Pukkala. (1988). Profitability of establishing Eucalyptus globulus plantations in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5363.
Keywords: reforestation; Ethiopia; Eucalyptus globulus; simulation of growth; economic analysis; land use planning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The economic analysis is based on computer simulations which covered a seedling rotation and three successive coppice rotations. Calculations were carried out for the four site productivity classes in Eucalyptus globulus plantations. The rotation length that maximized the land expectation value is 12–20 years for seedling rotation and 8–16 years for coppice rotations with discounting rates 2–8%. The mean wood production is over 40 m3/ha/a in the best site class and about 10 m3/ha/a in the poorest class with rotation lengths ranging from 10 to over 20 years. Thinnings increase the wood production and land expectation value by a few percentage points. In areas suitable to Eucalyptus globulus growth, the land expectation value is considerably higher in forestry than in agriculture, except in very poor areas or with very high rate of interest.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Pukkala, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown

Category: Article

article id 7428, category Article
J. J. MacGregor. (1954). The British forest economy and policy. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 16 article id 7428.
Keywords: forestry; forest land; reforestation; Brittain; Great Brittain; expansion of forests; Forestry Act
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Britain has the smaller proportion of woodland than almost any other country in Europe. During the two World Wars strategic considerations led to an examination of the adequacy of the national forest resources. A Forestry Commision was set up and the state started to promote the expansion of forestry. In the second war-time examination of the national forest policy, the Forestry Commision set an aim that after 50 years there would be about 5 million acres of productive woodland. However, the aim was not reached. During the Second World War there was large inroads into the remaining growing stock. The post-war policy recognized a need to new emphasis to reforestation, and two Forestry Acts were enacted in 1945 and 1947 to speed up the planting program.

In 1947 there was 3,448,362 acres of forests in blocks of five acres or over, and 184,000 acres in smaller woods. 82% of these were owned by private forest owners. The area of high forests was 1,788,799, coppice 349,994, scrub 496,994, devastated land 151,064 and felled 665,554 acres. The objective is that forestry in Britain should eventually supply about a third of the annual requirement. The 1947 act introduced the Dedication Scheme, which for instance provides grants and loans for the forest owners for forest management work, and states some obligations concerning forestry.

The expansion of forestry was shaped by ideas of national safety in time of war rather than buy achieving profit. Presently, the main economic task is to build up the national forest industry.
The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

  • MacGregor, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Research article

article id 10663, category Research article
Back Tomas Ersson, Lars-Göran Sundblad, Jussi Manner. (2022). Cost analysis of seedling supply systems adapted for mechanized tree planting: a case study from southern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 56 no. 2 article id 10663.
Keywords: logistics; silviculture; reforestation; tree planting machine; containerized seedling; seedling handling; system analysis
Highlights: The total cost of cardboard box concepts that increase the productivity of tree planting machines is higher than of the cultivation tray system (5–49% in the basic scenario); Increasing the boxes’ packing densities and/or the planting machines’ hourly cost increases the boxes’ cost-competitiveness; Packing density is a key factor in achieving highly cost-efficient seedling supply systems for mechanized tree planting.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Because today’s tree planting machines do a good job silviculturally, the Nordic forest sector is interested in finding ways to increase the planting machines’ productivity. Faster seedling reloading increases machine productivity, but that solution might require investments in specially designed seedling packaging. The objective of our study was to compare the cost-efficiency of cardboard box concepts that increase the productivity of tree planting machines with that of today’s two most common seedling packaging systems in southern Sweden. We modelled the total cost of these five different seedling packaging systems using data from numerous sources including manufacturers, nurseries, contractors, and forest companies. Under these southern Swedish conditions, the total cost of cardboard box concepts that increase the productivity of intermittently advancing tree planting machines was higher than the cost of the cultivation tray system (5–49% in the basic scenario). However, the conceptual packaging system named ManBox_fast did show promise, especially with increasing primary transport distances and increased planting machine productivities and hourly costs. Thus, our results show that high seedling packing density is of fundamental importance for cost-efficiency of cardboard box systems designed for mechanized tree planting. Our results also illustrate how different factors in the seedling supply chain affect the cost-efficiency of tree planting machines. Consequently, our results underscore that the key development factor for mechanized tree planting in the Nordic countries is the development of cost-efficient seedling handling systems between nurseries and planting machines.

  • Ersson, SLU, School of Forest Management, SE-739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Sundblad, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Manner, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID E-mail:
article id 10409, category Research article
Noé Dumas, Mathieu Dassot, Jonathan Pitaud, Jérôme Piat, Lucie Arnaudet, Claudine Richter, Catherine Collet. (2021). Four-year-performance of oak and pine seedlings following mechanical site preparation with lightweight excavators. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 2 article id 10409.
Keywords: vegetation control; reforestation; seedling growth; seedling survival
Highlights: Mechanical site preparation (MSP) with lightweight excavators controls highly competitive plant species (Molinia caerulea, Pteridium aquilinum) much more efficiently than MSP with conventional methods; This MSP approach improves four-year survival and growth of pine seedlings, but it is less evident for oak seedlings.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Mechanical site preparation methods that used tools mounted on lightweight excavators and that provided localised intensive preparation were tested in eight experimental sites across France where the vegetation was dominated either by Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench or Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Two lightweight tools (Deep Scarifier: DS; Deep Scarifier followed by Multifunction Subsoiler: DS+MS) were tested in pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra var. corsicana (Loudon) Hyl. or Pinus pinaster Aiton) and oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. or Quercus robur L.) plantations. Regional methods commonly used locally (herbicide, disk harrow, mouldboard plow) and experimental methods (repeated herbicide application; untreated control) were used as references in the experiments. Neighbouring vegetation cover, seedling survival, height and basal diameter were assessed over three to five years after plantation. For pines growing in M. caerulea, seedling diameter after four years was 37% and 98% greater in DS and DS+MS, respectively, than in the untreated control. For pines growing in P. aquilinum, it was 62% and 107% greater in the same treatments. For oak, diameter was only 4% and 15% greater in M. caerulea, and 13% and 25% greater in P. aquilinum, in the same treatments. For pines, the survival rate after four years was 26% and 32% higher in M. caerulea and 64% and 70% higher in P. aquilinum, in the same treatments. For oak, it was 3% and 29% higher in M. caerulea and 37% and 31% higher in P. aquilinum. Herbicide, when applied for three or four years after planting, provided the best growth performances for pines growing in M. caerulea and P. aquilinum and for oaks growing in P. aquilinum. For these species and site combinations, DS+MS and DS treatments reduced the neighbouring vegetation cover for one to four years following site preparation.

  • Dumas, Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRAE, UMR Silva, 54000 Nancy, France E-mail:
  • Dassot, EcoSustain, Environmental Engineering Office, Research and Development, 31, rue de Volmerange, 57330 Kanfen, France; Institut National de l’Information Géographique et Forestière, 1 rue des Blanches Terres, 54250 Champigneulles, France E-mail:
  • Pitaud, Office National des Forêts, Département Recherche Développement et Innovation, route d’Amance, 54280 Champenoux, France E-mail:
  • Piat, Office National des Forêts, Département Recherche Développement et Innovation, 3 rue du petit château, 60200 Compiègne, France E-mail:
  • Arnaudet, Office National des Forêts, Département Recherche Développement et Innovation, 100 boulevard de la Salle, 45760 Boigny-sur-Bionne, France E-mail:
  • Richter, Office National des Forêts, Département Recherche Développement et Innovation, Boulevard de Constance, 77300 Fontainebleau, France E-mail:
  • Collet, Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRAE, UMR Silva, 54000 Nancy, France ORCID E-mail: (email)
article id 7751, category Research article
Göran Nordlander, Euan G. Mason, Karin Hjelm, Henrik Nordenhem, Claes Hellqvist. (2017). Influence of climate and forest management on damage risk by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis in northern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7751.
Keywords: temperature sum; reforestation; soil scarification; clear-cut age; conifer seedling; damage prediction; warmer climate
Highlights: Analysis of survey data from 292 reforestation areas in northern Sweden show that the probability of pine weevil damage can be predicted with a standard error of 0.12; Three variables are important in the optimal model: proportion of seedlings in mineral soil, age of clear-cut, and temperature sum; Temperature sum in the model can be adjusted to reflect future climate scenarios.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. is an economically important pest insect that kills high proportions of conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. It is present in conifer forests all over Europe but weevil abundance and risk for damage varies considerably between areas. This study aimed to obtain a useful model for predicting damage risks by analyzing survey data from 292 regular forest plantations in northern Sweden. A model of pine weevil attack was constructed using various site characteristics, including both climatic factors and factors related to forest management activities. The optimal model was rather imprecise but showed that the risk of pine weevil attack can be predicted approximatively with three principal variables: 1) the proportion of seedlings expected to be planted in mineral soil rather than soil covered with duff and debris, 2) age of clear-cut at the time of planting, and 3) calculated temperature sum at the location. The model was constructed using long-run average temperature sums for epoch 2010, and so effects of climate change can be inferred from the model by adjustment to future epochs. Increased damage risks with a warmer climate are strongly indicated by the model. Effects of a warmer climate on the geographical distribution and abundance of the pine weevil are also discussed. The new tool to better estimate the risk of damage should provide a basis for foresters in their choice of countermeasures against pine weevil damage in northern Europe.

  • Nordlander, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Mason, University of Canterbury, School of Forestry, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Hjelm, Skogforsk, The Forest Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, P.O. Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden E-mail:
  • Nordenhem, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
  • Hellqvist, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
article id 893, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Timo Saksa, Jaana Luoranen. (2013). Soil preparation method affects outplanting success of Norway spruce container seedlings on till soils susceptible to frost heave. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 893.
Keywords: Picea abies; pine weevil; vole; mounding; reforestation; glyphosate; plantation establishment; soil water content
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Soil preparation is a common practice that precedes outplanting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Finland as it enhances the survival and early growth of seedlings. Mounding in particular has become more common with Norway spruce planting in recent years. However, on fine-grained soils, the postplanting performance of seedlings has been poorer than on coarser soils even with mounding. This study examined the effects of different soil preparation treatments (spot and ditch mounding with varying mound height, inverting, unprepared control with or without a herbicide) on the postplanting performance of Norway spruce container seedlings on till soil susceptible to frost heave in two outplanting forest sites in central Finland. The results indicate higher soil temperature and lower soil water content especially in the highest mounds. Mounds, however, subsided gradually during the study years. Seedling mortality was higher and the proportion of vigorous seedlings was lower in the unprepared treatments, mainly due to increased pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) damage. Frost heave was present mainly on ditch mounded and inverted spots. Glyphosate herbicide treatment showed no benefit compared to the untreated control in two years. Consequently, seedling damage and conditions in the planting spots were reflected in seedling growth which was enhanced in the mounded spots. However, varying mound height or thickness of mineral capping showed no clear difference in seedling growth. The results therefore suggest that ditch or spot mounding should be used on frost heave susceptible forest soils to promote plantation establishment. Inverting or having no soil preparation with or without herbicide is not recommended.
  • Heiskanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
  • Luoranen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600, Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail:
article id 297, category Research article
Antti Marjokorpi, Jukka Salo. (2007). Operational standards and guidelines for biodiversity management in tropical and subtropical forest plantations – How widely do they cover an ecological framework? Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 297.
Keywords: criteria and indicators; afforestation; conservation; sustainable forest management; reforestation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The development of standards and guidelines to secure sustainable forest management at different geographical scales has expanded greatly during the past fifteen years. Most of these efforts, however, have been formulated for natural forests only; those designed specifically for forest plantations are relatively few. The global forest plantation area is expanding rapidly, with obvious positive and negative impacts on biodiversity. We characterize the key concepts of biodiversity in tropical and subtropical forest plantations and present an analysis of how these elements are covered in the eight principal operational standards and guidelines for sustainable plantation forestry. We also examine the applicability of standards and guidelines in plantations established and managed under different initial settings. The results indicate that the standards and guidelines address certain key elements of biodiversity comprehensively, meanwhile others are ignored or receive only slight attention. There is also substantial variation between the sets in their nature (performance- vs. process-based), scope, congruity in concepts and hierarchy, and specificity. The standards and guidelines seldom take into account the varying initial settings for plantation establishment and the consequent variation in critical factors in biodiversity conservation and management. We recommend that standards and guidelines should be developed so as to pay more attention to the type and operating environment of plantations, to cover all key factors of biodiversity, and to consider building closer relationships between the social and ecological aspects of biodiversity.
  • Marjokorpi, Stora Enso, Wood Supply, Talvikkitie 40 C, FI-01300 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Salo, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20140 Turku, Finland E-mail:

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