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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'afforestation'

Category : Article

article id 5404, category Article
Pentti Alho. (1990). Suomen metsittyminen jääkauden jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5404.
English title: The history of forests in Finland after the last ice age.
Original keywords: puulajit; jääkausi; metsittyminen; luonnonhistoria
English keywords: tree species; review articles; natural afforestation; ice age; natural history; post glacial
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Based on literature this paper describes the natural afforestation of Finland that took place after the last ice age and the changes which have taken place during the last 10,000 years. The origin and development of the vegetation and trees are related to the changes in the edaphic and climatic factors. The first tree species to arrive in Finland were the primary colonizing species, birch and Scots pine. The appearance of Norway spruce dates back to about 5000 B.P. There have been great changes in the species composition of Finnish forests during the last several thousands of years but some 2,000–3,000 years ago the various species reached their present balance. The epoch of naural forests, which had lasted some 9,500 years, came to a conclusion, however, when man started to have a marked effect on the forest’s development 300–400 years ago.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Alho, E-mail: pa@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5163, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1982). Ojitusalueiden taimistojen kehityksestä vuosina 1964-68 toimeenpannun suometsäkilpailun koealojen valossa. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5163.
English title: Development of seedling stands on drained peatlands in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: metsitys; ojitusalueet; kasvu; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; taimikot
English keywords: afforestation; drained peatlands; Finland; growth; seedling stands; fertilizing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the paper was to describe the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedling stands on drained peatlands and to find out the principal factors influencing their growth. The material under survey consists of 180 sample plots distributed from southern coast of Finland to the Polar Circle.

The most important growth factors have been the accumulated temperature sum, site quality, drainage intensity and silvicultural condition, such as the density of the stand, the proportion of birch in the stand, and the amount of possible shelterwoods. The influence of these factors, and to some extent the influence of fertilizing, and the disturbing effects of some forest damages, such as frost, growth disturbances and elk damages were investigated. Comparisons of the development in the seedling stands on drained peatlands with the known development of seedling stands in mineral soils were made.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5038, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). The role of forestry in the fight against desertification. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5038.
Keywords: afforestation; forestry; desertification; congress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This paper reviews the background documents and the final report of the United Nations Conference on Desertification, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in August/September of 1977. Deforestation for grazing or agriculture has often been the initial step towards desertification. Consequently, tree planting plays a central role in the reclamation of desertified areas. Shelterbelts and other tree plantations protect agricultural land, settlements and communications.

Tree plantations in arid zones need effective protection against grazing and other improper land use. This must be explained to political leaders and local people. As a long-term investment, it requires a high level of education to understand its ultimate usefulness, and also research to choose the best species and techniques for different climatic and soil conditions is needed. In addition, afforestation will contribute to the solution of energy problems. Fast growing trees, even with artificial irrigation, can be the most efficient and economical way to cover energy needs of rural people. To accomplish the task of reclamation of decertified areas, international cooperation and technical and economic support from industrial countries to developing countries is needed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4920, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1975). Turvetuotannosta vapautuvan maan metsittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4920.
English title: Afforestation of bogs after industrial exploitation of peat.
Original keywords: mänty; metsitys; lannoitus; suojapuusto; turvetuotanto; jälkikäyttö; tuhka; tervaleppä; suonpohja
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; Scots pine; Alnus glutinosa; alder; peat production; after-use; ash
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Peat industry is rapidly expanding in Finland. Consequently, during next decades peat will be removed from thousands of hectares. Because timber production probably is the most rational use of this area after the peat production has ended, some experiments of afforestation of such areas have already been conducted. This article reports results of two experiments which were started in Kihniö, Western Finland, in 1953 and 1964.

In the first experiment fertilization with wood ash proved very effective whereas seeding and planting without fertilization resulted in almost complete failure. In the second experiment, interplanting with grey alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) greatly promoted the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The effect of slight fertilization lasted a few years only. The reasons for the remarkable effect of alder need further research. Although alder is known as a nitrogen-fixing plant, its beneficial effect was most clearly seen in the K and P contents of pine needles. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi was beneficial but not necessary. Experiments hitherto show that afforestation of bogs after peat removal is possible although some additional measures like fertilization or interplanting with alder may be needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, E-mail: pm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4838, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1971). Metsityslannoituksessa käytetyn lannoitemäärän ja levitystavan merkitys istutustaimiston alkukehitykselle ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4838.
English title: The quantity of fertilizer and application methods used in afforestation of open bogs.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; taimet; turvemaat; lannoitus; ojitetut suot; avosuot; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; height growth; mortality; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results obtained from an experiment of fertilization of drained treeless peatlands in connection of planting in three sites in Central Finland. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings 2+0 was used. The fertilizer (Y-fertilizer for peat soils, 14% N, 18% P2O5, 10% K2O) was applied in rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 g/transplant. The fertilizer was strewn either around the plant within a circular patch of 20 cm in diameter, in a ring with a radius of 10 cm and in a ring with a radius of 20 cm. The seedlings were measured two and five years after planting.

The greater the quantity of fertilizer applied and the closer it was applied to the plant the higher was the mortality of transplants. Fertilization increased the mortality during the first two growing seasons after application. Later, however, the mortality decreased to a similar level irrespective the way the fertilizer was applied. In the beginning of the second growing season the fertilized plants showed considerably better height growth than the control plants. The smallest quantity of fertilizer applied produced almost full increase in growth. The pattern of application of the fertilizer had little effect on the growth.

It was concluded that a use of small amounts of fertilizer can be recommended in connection with planting and that it should not be applied very near the seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: ks@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4828, category Article
Juhani Numminen. (1970). Pellonvaraussopimusten alaisten peltojen metsitys. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 4 article id 4828.
English title: Afforestation of agricultural land under soil bank contracts.
Original keywords: asennetutkimus; pellonraivauspalkkio; maanviljelijät; peltojen metsitys; pakettipellot
English keywords: afforestation; agricultural land; soil bank act; soil bank; farmers; fields; restriction of production; attitude research
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Under the soil bank act, which took effect in 1969, 85,000 hectares of agricultural land were withdrawn from agricultural production in order to cut down the heavy surpluses of grain and butter in Finland. The farmers have a possibility to afforest their soil bank land partly on public funds, and if they choose to do so they receive a compensation of 250 Fmk for 15 years, instead of the nine years which is the maximum duration of a soil bank contract.

The study involved interviewing of 136 farmers sampled from the total of 13,368. The farmers were planning to afforest a total of 18,600 ha by the end of 1972. The main species were birch (Betula sp.) 40%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) both 30%. The main reasons (mentioned by 65% of the farmers) for afforestating the soil bank land were the unfavourable conditions for agriculture. On the other hand, 43% of those who had decided not to afforest felt that their land is too good to be planted with trees. One fifth of those not afforesting said that they themselves would not benefit from the afforestation and therefore were not interested in investing in forestry. The attitudes of the farmers seem to have also influenced their decision on afforestation. Those who had taken a positive decision on afforestation appeared to take more positive attitude in regard to forestry than other farmers.

The soil bank act does not seem to solve permanently Finland’s problem of the surpluses of agricultural products since the soil bank farmers planned to revert two thirds of the soil bank land under cultivation on the expiration of the soil bank act.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Numminen, E-mail: jn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4764, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1968). Istutusajankohdan vaikutus männyn istutuksen onnistumiseen ojitetuilla avosoilla. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 4764.
English title: The effect of the date of planting on the survival of Scots pine on drained open peatlands in Finland.
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; metsitys; ojitusalueet; turvekankaat; istutusaika; avosuot; syysistutus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; afforestation; drained peatlands; Scots pine; planting; time of planting; autumn planting; open peatlands
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Due to mechanization of draining of peatlands, also open peatlands have been included in the draining projects due to technical reasons. Some research has been published on afforestation of open drained peatlands, but there is yet no experiments that reaches the entire development of the stands. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possibility of extending the planting season of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) over the entire growing season in drained peatlands, where the water condition of the site is probably not the factor limiting forest development. An open low-sedge swamps in Southern Finland were planted in early summer and two weeks in midsummer in 1967.

In the light of the results, planting Scots pine would seem possible in drained peatlands throughout the growing season. However, plants may suffer considerably from lifting for the plantation in August. The success of planting at the turn of September and October is also uncertain. The nursery must be situated close to the areas to be planted, since the transportation and handling of plants during the growing season must be carried out with extreme care. The seasonality of planting work could be decreased by extending the planting season. In the future, several transplant storing methods should be tried out in connection with similar planting-time experiments.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4530, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1938). Ojitettujen soiden metsittämisestä. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4530.
English title: Afforestation of drained peatlands.
Original keywords: valtionmetsät; Metsähallitus; ojitus; metsäopetus; metsänviljely; metsänhoitajien jatkokurssit; luontainen uudistaminen; metsitys; suot
English keywords: afforestation; natural regeneration; drained peatlands; peatlands; forest regeneration; Forest Service; forest education; state forests; professional development courses
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes afforestation of drained peatlands. 

  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Article

article id 7232, category Article
Edvard Wibeck. (1929). Discussions on the choice of cultivation method in coniferous forests in Sweden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 19 article id 7232.
Keywords: regeneration; afforestation; cultivation; Sweden; forest type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Sweden lot of state owned forests or earlier mining districts or districts of ironworks have been afforested during the last decade. The amount of afforested areas sinks from south to north. Afforestation has taken place also in privately owned forests.

The article discusses the common economic questions related to afforestation work and the biological viewpoints related to it. The best cultivation methods are presented for several common forest types, such as herb-rich forest types, moss-grown forests types, swampy forests with heavy raw humus and barren pine forest sites (lichen type).

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Wibeck, E-mail: ew@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7229, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1929). The thickness of peat bed and gradients of peatland surface on different peatland types. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 16 article id 7229.
Keywords: peatland; afforestation; drainage; forest cultivation; peat bed; gradient
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The type of the peatland and its classification as forest site (height-over-age-classification) are important information when the drainage potential of a peatland is defined. The gradient and thickness of peat bed are also significant.

The observations for the study have been collected in state owned forests in middle-Finland. The thickness and gradient variations have no clear differences between different types of peatlands. The results show that from the view of drainage for afforestation, the peatlands that are good or suitable for afforestation are flatter and more even that those less suitable. The more suitable peatlands also have thinner peat bed and bigger gradient.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.


  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7215, category Article
Mark L. Anderson. (1929). Forest types in Scotland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 2 article id 7215.
Keywords: afforestation; silviculture; forest site types
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The primeval forests of Scotland were deforested in the Lowlands by the end of 1500th century, and in the end of the 1800th century also the best forests of the more inaccessible Highlands were exploited. The 1800th century witnessed an outburst of afforestation among the private land owners. With help of nursery work and use of exotic species, the work was successful. Silviculture of Scotland would benefit of a reliable method of site classification. The complexity of the geology and topography, and the lack of mature natural stands complicate the establish a forest type classification similar to the one Prof. Cajander has evolved in Finland. The aim is to establish forest site types which include similar types as in Finland, with possibly additional types in the grass-herb series.

Jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Anderson, E-mail: ma@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7045, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1920). Studies on the relationship between the type of the peatland and the peat of its surface. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 7045.
Keywords: peatland; afforestation; drainage; peat; peat type; peat layer
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study is to find out how do the peatlands develop after drainage and how does the type of peat affect the growing conditions of the forest on it. Study is based on measurements made in summer 1919 in about middle Finland (districts of Loppi, Yläne, Kihniö, Nerkoo, Orivesi, Vilppula, Multia and Karstula). The macroscopic identified content of the peat was analyzed: the different peat types were categorized according the species of the most abundant plant remains. The characteristics of the studied peat types are represented.

The conclusion of the study is that when deciding about the suitability of the drained peatland for afforestation, the thickness and content of the peat must be considered in addition to peat type.   

  • Lukkala, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)

Category : Research article

article id 10273, category Research article
Lasse Aro, Anssi Ahtikoski, Jyrki Hytönen. (2020). Profitability of growing Scots pine on cutaway peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 3 article id 10273.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; afforestation; bare land value; financial performance; peat cutaway area; stand-level optimization
Highlights: The potential wood production on cutaway peatlands can be high; Afforestation with seeding or planting was profitable at 3% rate of interest; In northern Finland, the afforestation method, ditch spacing and fertilization affected the bare land value.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A major after-use option for former peat harvesting areas has been afforestation. The profitability of afforestation with Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in two 31–32-year old experiments in southern and northern Finland. The stands were established by seeding and planting, and various fertilization treatments and drainage intensities were tested. The financial performance for each plot was assessed in three steps. First, the costs occurred during the measurement time were summed up according to their present value. Then, for the rest of the rotation (i.e., from the age of 31/32 onwards) the stand management was optimized in order to maximize the net present value (MaxNPV). Finally, bare land values (BLVs) were calculated by summing up the present value of costs and the MaxNPV and converting the sum of the series into infinity. The afforestation method did not affect the mean annual increment (MAI; 9.2–9.5 m3 ha–1 a–1) in the southern experiment. In the northern experiment the afforestation method, ditch spacing and fertilization had significant effects on the MAI of the stands. The average MAI of the planted pines was 8.9 m3 ha–1 a–1, and for seeded pines it was 7.5 m3 ha–1 a–1. The BLV at an interest rate of 3% was positive for all stands in both regions. In the northern region afforestation method, ditch spacing and fertilization also had a significant effect on the BLV. When the interest rate was 5%, almost two thirds of the stands had a negative BLV in both regions.

  • Aro, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 4A, FI-20520 Turku, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Ahtikoski, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Paavo Havaksentie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID E-mail:
  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID E-mail:
article id 1628, category Research article
Jürgen Aosaar, Ülo Mander, Mats Varik, Hardo Becker, Gunnar Morozov, Martin Maddison, Veiko Uri. (2016). Biomass production and nitrogen balance of naturally afforested silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand in Estonia. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1628.
Keywords: aboveground biomass; birch; afforestation; soil carbon; land use change; agricultural land; nitrogen budget
Highlights: Leafless aboveground biomass of the 17-year-old natural silver birch stand growing in abandoned agricultural land reached 94 Mg ha–1; The largest fluxes in N budget were net nitrogen mineralization and gaseous N2-N emission; Nitrogen leaching was low; Soil N content increased with the stand age, soil C content remained stable; N2O and N2 fluxes in boreal deciduous forest were analysed.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) is one of the main pioneer tree species occupying large areas of abandoned agricultural lands under natural succession in Estonia. We estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) dynamics during 17 growing seasons, and analysed soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) dynamics for 10 year period in a silver birch stand growing on former arable land. Main N fluxes were estimated and nitrogen budget for 10-year-old stand was compiled. The leafless AGB and stem mass of the stand at the age of 17-years were 94 and 76 Mg ha–1 respectively. The current annual increment (CAI) of stemwood fluctuated, peaking at 10 Mg ha–1 yr–1 at the age of 15 years; the mean annual increment (MAI) fluctuated at around 4–5 Mg ha–1. The annual leaf mass of the stand stabilised at around 3 Mg ha–1 yr–1. The stand density decreased from 11600 to 2700 trees ha–1 in the 8- and 17-year-old stand, respectively. The largest fluxes in N budget were net nitrogen mineralization and gaseous N2-N emission. The estimated fluxes of N2O and N2 were 0.12 and 83 kg ha–1 yr–1, respectively; N leaching was negligible. Nitrogen retranslocation from senescing leaves was approximately 45 kg ha–1, N was mainly retranslocated into stembark. The N content in the upper 0–10 cm soil layer increased significantly (145 kg ha–1) from 2004 to 2014; soil C content remained stable. Both the woody biomass dynamics and the N cycling of the stand witness the potential for bioenergetics of such ecosystems.

  • Aosaar, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia E-mail: (email)
  • Mander, University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:
  • Varik, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:
  • Becker, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:
  • Morozov, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:
  • Maddison, University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:
  • Uri, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia E-mail:
article id 242, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Paula Jylhä. (2008). Fifteen-year response of weed control intensity and seedling type on Norway spruce survival and growth on arable land. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 242.
Keywords: Norway spruce; afforestation; frost damage; seedling size; seedling type; vegetation control
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The effects of seedling type (2-year-old container seedlings vs. 4-year-old bare-rooted seedlings) and post-planting vegetation control intensity on the growth and survival of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were compared based on 15-year data from a field experiment established on arable land. Vegetation control treatments with terbuthylazine and glyphosate were carried out 1–3 times on successive years, either as overall or spot applications. The highest stand volumes were obtained with the combination of large bare-rooted seedlings and effective vegetation control. Volume of bare-rooted seedlings was greater than that of container seedlings in all treatments (e.g. on the control plots 9.5 m3/ha vs. 4.1 m3/ha). The best results were obtained with the most intensive weed control treatments (spot treatment repeated twice and overall application repeated three times). These treatments increased both bare-rooted and containerised seedlings’ survival by 33–40% units and their height, breast height diameter, and volume by 45–49%, 17–47%, and 249–279%, respectively. In terms of survival, the container seedlings, in due part to their smaller size, benefited from vegetation control more than the bare-rooted seedlings. Successive early summer frosts damaged the seedlings and significantly retarded their growth. The frequency of frost damage was not affected by vegetation control nor was it attributed to seedling type.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101, Kannus, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101, Kannus, Finland E-mail:
article id 297, category Research article
Antti Marjokorpi, Jukka Salo. (2007). Operational standards and guidelines for biodiversity management in tropical and subtropical forest plantations – How widely do they cover an ecological framework? Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 2 article id 297.
Keywords: criteria and indicators; afforestation; conservation; sustainable forest management; reforestation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The development of standards and guidelines to secure sustainable forest management at different geographical scales has expanded greatly during the past fifteen years. Most of these efforts, however, have been formulated for natural forests only; those designed specifically for forest plantations are relatively few. The global forest plantation area is expanding rapidly, with obvious positive and negative impacts on biodiversity. We characterize the key concepts of biodiversity in tropical and subtropical forest plantations and present an analysis of how these elements are covered in the eight principal operational standards and guidelines for sustainable plantation forestry. We also examine the applicability of standards and guidelines in plantations established and managed under different initial settings. The results indicate that the standards and guidelines address certain key elements of biodiversity comprehensively, meanwhile others are ignored or receive only slight attention. There is also substantial variation between the sets in their nature (performance- vs. process-based), scope, congruity in concepts and hierarchy, and specificity. The standards and guidelines seldom take into account the varying initial settings for plantation establishment and the consequent variation in critical factors in biodiversity conservation and management. We recommend that standards and guidelines should be developed so as to pay more attention to the type and operating environment of plantations, to cover all key factors of biodiversity, and to consider building closer relationships between the social and ecological aspects of biodiversity.
  • Marjokorpi, Stora Enso, Wood Supply, Talvikkitie 40 C, FI-01300 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Salo, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20140 Turku, Finland E-mail:
article id 503, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen. (2003). Effects of wood, peat and coal ash fertilization on Scots pine foliar nutrient concentrations and growth on afforested former agricultural peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 503.
Keywords: wood ash; afforestation; Scots pine; vegetation control; herbicides; coal ash; peat ash; peat soils
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The effects of ash and commercial fertilizers on the foliar nutrient concentrations and stand growth of Scots pine were studied in four field experiments established on former cultivated peat soils. The aims were to compare ash types (wood, peat and coal ash), study the effects of ash treatment (pelletization), compare ash fertilization with commercial fertilizers, and to study the interaction between ash fertilization and weed control. Foliar samples were collected 1–3 years and 7–8 years after fertilization. In the unfertilized plots, the foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were fairly high, while those of potassium were low in all the experiments. The boron levels were low in three out of the four experiments. Application of either loose or pelletized wood ash, as well as of commercial fertilizers, increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, and thus successfully remedied the existing nutrient imbalances and deficiencies. Since phosphorus deficiencies are rarely encountered on field afforestation sites, poor-quality wood ash with low phosphorus concentration could be used. Peat ash containing phosphorus, but only small amounts of potassium and boron, was not found to be very suitable for soil amelioration in connection with field afforestation. Coal ash, containing only small amounts of potassium, was a good source of boron for pine even when used in small amounts, and thus it can be used in cases where boron deficiencies alone are encountered. Wood ash significantly increased the height growth of Scots pines in two of the experiments, but peat ash and coal ash had no statistically significant effect. Wood ash increased the number of healthy seedlings. Vegetation control decreased seedling mortality by 24%, increased the growth of pine and decreased the proportion of trees damaged by elk and by deciduous trees.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland E-mail: (email)
article id 676, category Research article
Erik Sundström. (1998). Afforestation of low-productive peatlands in Sweden – a tree species comparison. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 4 article id 676.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Picea abies; afforestation; drainage; tree species; climate; Pinus contorta; broadcast fertilization; spot fertilization
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In 1970, five low-productive treeless peatlands in Sweden, ranging from latitudes 56°N to 67°N, were drained and fertilized for afforestation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of four ditch spacings, varying from 7.5 to 60 m, and five NPK-fertilizer combinations, on the survival and growth of planted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. The assessments were carried out 18–22 years after planting. Neither silver birch, nor Norway spruce was regarded suitable for the site type. The mortality of silver birch was almost complete, and Norway spruce did not grow well in any of the study areas, however, better than Scots pine in the north. Lodgepole pine had better height and diameter growth but also higher mortality rates than Scots pine. In the two northernmost experimental areas no response to fertilization was found. In the other three areas, the response to fertilization did not differ between species. Phosphorus was the most effective of the added fertilizer elements, whereas nitrogen showed no positive effect. Broadcast fertilizer application, with three times higher amount of fertilizer per ha gave the same growth response as spot application.
  • Sundström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: (email)
article id 683, category Research article
Anders Karlsson, Arne Albrektson, Anders Forsgren, Lennart Svensson. (1998). An analysis of successful natural regeneration of downy and silver birch on abandoned farmland in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 683.
Keywords: Betula pendula; site preparation; Betula pubescens; afforestation; arable land; site conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
To improve our understanding of factors influencing the success of natural regeneration with downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) on abandoned farmlands, a survey was conducted to analyse the effects of site conditions and site preparation characteristics. The study was based on a sample plot inventory conducted in one northern and one southern district of Sweden, in which 29 successfully established, naturally regenerated stands, about to be cleaned or thinned, were assessed. Radical site preparation increased stand density and uniformity of established regeneration, and gave faster initial development, than establishment without site preparation on former leys or meadows. Large proportions of the total sample area were classified as moist, and soils consisting of sand–fine sand or peat were frequent. The frequency of birch stems was highest in mesic sites, and on soils consisting of sand, sand–fine sand or peat. Distances to seed-trees were generally shorter than 80 m, and downy birch was the dominant species in most stands.
  • Karlsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Albrektson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail:
  • Forsgren, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail:
  • Svensson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden E-mail:

Category : Review article

article id 74, category Review article
Philip J. Burton, S. Ellen Macdonald. (2011). The restorative imperative: challenges, objectives and approaches to restoring naturalness in forests. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 74.
Keywords: afforestation; disturbance regime; ecological restoration; forest rehabilitation; native species; reclamation
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Many of the world’s forests are not primeval; forest restoration aims to reverse alterations caused by human use. Forest restoration (including reforestation and forest rehabilitation) is widely researched and practiced around the globe. A review of recent literature reveals some common themes concerning forest restoration motivations and methods. In some parts of the world, forest restoration aims mainly to re-establish trees required for timber or fuelwood; such work emphasizes the propagation, establishment and growth of trees, and equates with the traditional discipline of silviculture. Elsewhere, a recent focus on biocentric values adopts the goal of supporting full complements of indigenous trees and other species. Such ecosystem-based restoration approaches consider natural templates and a wide array of attributes and processes, but there remains an emphasis on trees and plant species composition. Efforts to restore natural processes such as nutrient cycling, succession, and natural disturbances seem limited, except for the use of fire, which has seen widespread adoption in some regions. The inherent challenges in restoring “naturalness” include high temporal and spatial heterogeneity in forest conditions and natural disturbances, the long history of human influence on forests in many regions of the world, and uncertainty about future climate and disturbance regimes. Although fixed templates may be inappropriate, we still have a reasonably clear idea of the incremental steps required to make forests more natural. Because most locations can support many alternative configurations of natural vegetation, the restoration of forest naturalness necessarily involves the setting of priorities and strategic directions in the context of human values and objectives, as informed by our best understanding of ecosystem structure and function now and in the future.
  • Burton, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 E-mail: (email)
  • Macdonald, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada E-mail:
article id 687, category Review article
Janusz B. Zwolinski, David B. South, E. A. P. Droomer. (1998). Pine mortality after planting on post-agricultural lands in South Africa. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 687.
Keywords: afforestation; mortality; Pinus patula; Pythium spp.; scalping
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Successful afforestation has been practiced in South Africa for more than a century. Recently, however, problems with afforestation of pines have occurred in the northeastern part of the Eastern Cape Province. Rapid mortality of Pinus patula and P. elliottii have occurred when small container seedlings were planted on old-agricultural soils. Death would often occur within 5 months of planting. Growth of surviving trees was retarded and new needles were chlorotic and stunted. Acceptable survival was obtained when seedlings were planted on virgin grasslands. Apparently, some unseen factor in the post-agricultural soil reduces root growth, increases mortality, and decreases uptake of nutrients. Removal of the infested soil by scalping greatly improves survival and growth as does soil fumigation with methyl bromide.
  • Zwolinski, Northeast Cape Forests, 19 Nassau St., 5470 Ugie, Rep. of South Africa E-mail: (email)
  • South, School of Forestry, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5418, USA E-mail:
  • Droomer, Northeast Cape Forests, 19 Nassau St., 5470 Ugie, Rep. of South Africa E-mail:

Category : Research note

article id 136, category Research note
Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Michal Zmihorski, Katarzyna Abramowicz. (2010). Forest habitat loss and fragmentation in Central Poland during the last 100 years. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 136.
Keywords: afforestation; fragmentation; landscape history; forest continuity; deforestation; ancient forest
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The process of habitat fragmentation consists of two components – habitat loss and fragmentation per se. Both are thought to be among the most important threats to biodiversity. However, the biological consequences of this process such as species occurrence, abundance, or genetic structure of population are driven by current, as well as previous, landscape configurations. Therefore, historical analyses of habitat distribution are of great importance in explaining the current species distribution. In our analysis, we describe the forest fragmentation process for an area of 178 km2 in the northern part of Mazowsze region of central Poland. Topographical maps from the years 1890, 1957 and 1989 were used. Over the 100-year period, forest coverage in this area changed from 17% to 5.6%, the number of patches increased from 19 to 42, while the area of the forest interior decreased from 1933 ha to 371 ha. The two components of fragmentation were clearly separated in time. Habitat loss occurred mainly during the first period (1890–1957) and fragmentation per se in the second (1957–1989). Moreover, we recorded that only 47.7% of all the currently (in 1989) afforested areas constitute sites where forests previously occurred (in 1890 and 1957). For forest dwelling organisms characterized by low dispersal abilities, the effective forest coverage seems to be a half of the real forest area in the studied landscape. New afforestations should be planned especially to increase those patches which contain ancient forest, where various plants and animals sensitive to fragmentation may have survived.
  • Mazgajski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Museum & Institute of Zoology, Wilcza 64, PL 00-679 Warsaw, Poland E-mail: (email)
  • Zmihorski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Museum & Institute of Zoology, Wilcza 64, PL 00-679 Warsaw, Poland E-mail:
  • Abramowicz, Department of Ecology, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2, PL 02-097 Warsaw, Poland E-mail:

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