Current issue: 57(2)

Under compilation: 57(3)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'insect'

Category: Article

article id 5614, category Article
Mika Jääskelä, Kari Heliövaara, Mikko Peltonen, Hannu Saarenmaa. (1997). Comparison of protection methods of pine stacks against Tomicus piniperda. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5614.
Keywords: forest protection; GIS; Tomicus piniperda; timber storage; insect pests; road side landings of timber; pulpwood stacks; protection of timber
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Three most promising protection methods of pine pulp wood stacks against the attacks of Tomicus piniperda L. were compared. The methods were the covering of stacks by fibreglass-strengthened paper or twofold achrylene netting, removing the upper parts of stacks, and enhanced planning of the placement of the timber store using ARC/INFO GIS-software. T. piniperda was observed to strongly prefer the upper parts of the stacks: 90 % of the beetles occurred within 0.5 meters of the top of the stacks. Covering of the stacks decreased the attack density of T. piniperda, and the protection effect of covering was 80 %. Due to long transport distances and fragmentation of forest landscape the relocation of timber store was found to be an unsuitable method in the practical level. Also, taking into account the costs of the method, removing of the upper parts of stacks was considered to be the optimal solution.

  • Jääskelä, E-mail: mj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
  • Peltonen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
  • Saarenmaa, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 5595, category Article
R.A. Fleming. (1996). A mechanistic perspective of possible influences of climate change on defoliating insects in North America's boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5595.
Keywords: climate change; disturbance regimes; boreal forest dynamics; Abies balsamea; natural selection; North America; Choristoneura fumiferana; insect outbreaks; phenological relationships; plant quality; extreme weather; thresholds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is no doubt that tree survival, growth, and reproduction in North America's boreal forests would be directly influenced by the projected changes in climate if they occur. The indirect effects of climate change may be of even greater importance, however, because of their potential for altering the intensity, frequency, and perhaps even the very nature of the disturbance regimes which drive boreal forest dynamics. Insect defoliator populations are one of the dominating disturbance factors in North America's boreal forests and during outbreaks trees are often killed over vast forest areas. If the predicted shifts in climate occur, the damage patterns caused by insects may be considerably changed, particularly those of insects whose temporal and spatial distributions are singularly dependent on climatic factors. The ensuing uncertainties directly affect depletion forecasts, pest hazard rating procedures, and long-term planning for pest control requirements. Because the potential for wildfire often increases in stands after insect attack, uncertainties in future insect damage patterns also lead to uncertainties in fire regimes. In addition, because the rates of processes key to biogeochemical and nutrient recycling are influenced by insect damage, potential changes in damage patterns can indirectly affect ecosystem resilience and the sustainability of the multiple uses of the forest resource.

In this paper, a mechanistic perspective is developed based on available information describing how defoliating forest insects might respond to climate warming. Because of its prevalence and long history of study, the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is used for illustrative purposes in developing this perspective. The scenarios that follow outline the potential importance of threshold behaviour, historical conditions, phenological relationships, infrequent but extreme weather, complex feedbacks, and natural selection. The urgency of such considerations is emphasized by reference to research suggesting that climate warming may already be influencing some insect lifecycles.

  • Fleming, E-mail: rf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5584, category Article
Tarmo Virtanen, Seppo Neuvonen, Pekka Niemelä, Ari Nikula, Martti Varama. (1996). Climate change and the risks of Neodiprion sertifer outbreaks on Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5584.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; GIS; Neodiprion sertifer; cold tolerance; winter temperatures; insect outbreaks
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The European Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffroy) is one of the most serious defoliators of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Europe. We studied the pattern in the regional occurrence of the outbreaks of N. sertifer in Finland in years 1961-90, and made predictions about the outbreak pattern to the year 2050 after predicted winter warming. We tested whether minimum winter temperatures and forest type and soil properties could explain the observed outbreak pattern. We analysed outbreak patterns at two different spatial levels: forest board- and municipal-level.

The proportion of coniferous forests on damage-susceptible soils (dry and infertile sites) explained a significant part of the variation in outbreak frequency at small spatial scale (municipalities) but not at large spatial scale (forest boards). At the forest board level, the incidence of minimum temperatures below -36 °C (= the critical value for egg mortality) explains 33% of the variation in the outbreak pattern, and at the municipal level the incidence of cold winters was also the most significant explaining variable in northern Finland. Egg mortality due to cold winters seems to be the most parsimonious factor explaining why there have been so few N. sertifer outbreaks in northern and north-eastern Finland. We predict that climate change (increased winter temperatures) may increase the frequency of outbreaks in eastern and northern Finland in the future.

  • Virtanen, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Neuvonen, E-mail: sn@mm.unknown
  • Niemelä, E-mail: pn@mm.unknown
  • Nikula, E-mail: an@mm.unknown
  • Varama, E-mail: mv@mm.unknown
article id 5576, category Article
Matti Nuorteva, Lennart Saari. (1996). Winter ecology of a female White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechstein). Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5576.
Keywords: winter food; Dendrocopos leucotos; white-backed woodpecker; prey insects; sawflies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the winter of 1977/78, a White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos Bechstein) was observed in the archipelago of southwestern Finland 200 km from its breeding areas. It foraged on insects living in mall dead alder and birches. The potential prey species were identified by rearing the insects from the trunks used by the White-backed Woodpecker. Altogether 628 adult insects emerged. In addition to the big larvae the potential food also included larvae of Sciaridae and Cecidomyidae (Diptera) living in dense clumps.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Saari, E-mail: ls@mm.unknown
article id 5450, category Article
Bo Långström, Claes Hellqvist. (1991). Shoot damage and growth losses following three years of Tomicus-attacks in Scots pine stands close to a timber storage site. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5450.
Keywords: Picea abies; growth; forest damage; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; timber storage; insect damages; shoots
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Shoot losses due to maturation feeding by pine shoot beetles (Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hart.), Col., Scolytidae) and subsequent growth losses were studied in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing at different distances from a timber yard, where pine timber was stored during the years 1982–84. In autumn 1985, pine trees were felled at 20, 40, 80, 500 and 1,500 m distance from the timber yard, five trees in each distance class. Trees were analysed for beetle attack, needle biomass and growth. In autumn 1988, increment cores were taken from 20 trees in each distance class.

In 1985, different damage estimates showed that beetle damage was more than 10-fold in the crowns of pine trees growing close to the timber yard as compared to less damaged trees in greater distance. Crude needle biomass estimates indicated that the trees attacked most had lost more than half of the total foliage. Following three years of attack, basal area growth decreased for 2–3 years and recovered during the subsequent 3 years, the total period of loss thus being 5–6 years. The loss in volume growth during 1983–85 was ca. 70, 40, 20 and 10% at 20, 40, 80 and 500 m distance from the beetle source, respectively, compared to the stand at 1,500. Growth losses did not occur until the number of beetle-attacks, ”pegs”, exceeded ca. 200 per tree. The highest observed growth losses occurred in trees with more than 1,000 pegs per tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hellqvist, E-mail: ch@mm.unknown
article id 5393, category Article
Erkki Annila. (1989). Metsien kunto ja bioottiset tuhonaiheuttajat. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5393.
English title: Condition of forests and biotic damages .
Original keywords: metsätalous; hyönteistuhot; ilmastonmuutos; ilmansaasteet; sienituhot
English keywords: forestry; climatic change; insect damages; air pollution; fungal pathogens
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This review discusses whether forests are affected by biotic damages due to present or future environmental disturbances, and do environmental threats, such as air pollution and climatic change, weaken the condition of forest in a way that makes them vulnerable to damages by fungi and insect. The defence mechanisms of trees and factors affecting the development of an outbreak are described. Finally, the ways that air pollution and climatic change may affect biotic damages are discussed. 

  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5361, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1988). Interactions among herbivores in three polluted pine stands. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5361.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Finland; Harjavalta; air pollution; insect pests; herbivores
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Succession of insect attacks on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied in heavily, moderately and slightly polluted pine stands within a three-kilometre distance from a prominent emission source in Western Finland. The total number of pest species was highest in the moderately polluted stand, but unlike other herbivores, aphids were also abundant in the heavily polluted stands. A few positive but no negative interactions were detected between herbivores, which suggests that insect species may benefit from a previous occurrence of other species in the same tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5276, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1986). Parasitization in Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) galls in relation to industrial air pollutants. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5276.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; insect damages; air pollution; Petrova resinella; gall stage; parasites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Paratization of Petrova resinella L. in the gall stage was studied in the surrounding of Harjavalta, south-western Finland, in relation to industrial air pollution. Of the studied 283 galls, 28% produced a moth, 52% of the larvae/pupae were paratisized, and 20% were empty or contained a dead larva. The proportion of paratisized galls did not depend on the distance from emission sources of industrial air pollutants.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5264, category Article
Kari Heliövaara. (1986). Occurrence of Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in a gradient of industrial air pollutants. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5264.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Harjavalta; insect damages; air pollution; Petrova resinella; galls
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The relationship between industrial air pollutants and the occurrence of galls of Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Torticiadae) was studied around the industrialized town of Harjavalta in Western Finland. There were 44 sampling sites set out at logarithmic distances along five transects (NW, W, SW, SE) froma a distive source of emissions. Each site consisted of three circular sample plots (30 m2) in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The number of galls, including cankers from several years earlier, was highest in the vicinity of the factory complex on each transect. The highest number of two-year-old galls containing living larvae was usually recorded at the ends of the transects several kilometres from the factories. However, the significance of the differences both between zones and transects was rather low. Correlations between the deposition of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), used as an indication of the general level of air pollution, and the total number of galls, were positive and generally highly significant. It is concluded that P. resinella has benefitted from air pollution although perhaps to less extent than some sap-sucking species.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5259, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi, Olli Uusvaara. (1986). Further tests for termite resistance of Finnish pine heartwood. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5259.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; heartwood; resistance; Macrotermitinae; insect attact
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The natural resistance of Finnish-grown Pinus sylvestris L. heartwood to Macrotermitinae termites was tested in Zambia in graveyard conditions. The heartwood exhibited some natural resistance but durability was, however, far from practical immunity. There was significant tree-to-tree variation in the resistance of heartwood of P. Sylvestris.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Uusvaara, E-mail: ou@mm.unknown
article id 5245, category Article
Pekka Helle, Jyrki Muona. (1985). Invertebrate numbers in edges between clearfellings and mature forests in Northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5245.
Keywords: Coleoptera; insects; Formicidae; vertebrate; crear-fellings; forest edges; Homoptera; Diptera; Gastropoda; Hymenoptera; Arachnida; biotopes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The abundance of main invertebrate groups was studied in clear-fellings, forests and in edges between them in Northern Finland in June-August 1983. Five trapping transects were used. Each transect had 48 pitfall traps and 16 window traps on the ground and 4-6 window traps in bushes or trees.

Invertebrate groups Homoptera, Diptera, Formicidae, Coleoptera and Gastropoda were more abundant in forest than in clear-cuts according to the pitfall data. In window traps the catches of all the main groups were larger in the forest side. Six out of the eight most important groups preferred the edge in pitfall data. Formicidae, other Hymenoptera, Arachnida and Gastropoda were more numerous in the edges than in the interior habitats in both sides of the edge. In window trap material no consistent edge preference was found in clear-fellings, but in the forest side it was evident. Coleoptera and Arachnida preferred the edge on both sides of it.

The variations in the catches of the invertebrate groups were studied by regression analyses. Independent variables used were the distance to the edge, the coverage of mosses, litter, mineral soil, grasses and sedges, herbs and the density of saplings. The percentage of variance explained in multiple regression analyses were highest for the group of other Hymenoptera and Arachnida and lowest for Coleoptera and Homoptera. As regards the explanation power of the independent variables the distance to the edge and the density of saplings clearly exceeded the others.

The results support the assumption that the breeding bird densities at forest edges, which is often high, may depend on high prey density there.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Helle, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Muona, E-mail: jm@mm.unknown
article id 5218, category Article
Jouni Suoheimo. (1984). Isokorvakärsäkkään aikuisten esiintyminen ja merkitys männyn luontaiselle uudistamiselle Pohjois-Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5218.
English title: The occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus and its significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine in Lapland.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; luontainen uudistaminen; taimituhot; Pohjois-Lappi; isokorvakärsäkäs
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; natural regeneration; Scots pine; insect damage; seedling damages; weevils; occurrence
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of Otiorrhynchus nodosus Müller weevils and their significance for the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was carried out during summer 1982 at Inari in northern Lapland.

There were two sample plots, one situated in a Scots pine seed-tree area and the other, the control sample plot, in an area with a coverage of mountain birch (Betula pubescens subsp. tortuosa, now subsp. czerepanovii). A total of 177 Otiorhynchus weevils were caught. Movement of the weevils reached its climax in July. There were 86% more individuals in the seed-tree area than in the mountain birch area. No damage to the pine germlings or seedlings was not observed, although the situation could be different during the peaks of the veewil populations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suoheimo, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5213, category Article
Bo Långström. (1984). Windthrown Scots pines as brood material for Tomicus piniperda and T. minor. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5213.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; bark beetles; Scots pine; wind damages; breeding; Sweden; Tomicus piniperda; Tomicus minor; insect damage; egg galleries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the 1980 and 1981, windthrown and felled Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were examined at 8 localities in Sweden. The number and length of egg galleries as well as the number of exit holes of Tomicus piniperda (L.) and T. minor (Hart.) were recorded on sample sections (30 m in length) distributed at 3 m intervals on the 37 fallen pine stems, which were successfully colonized by the beetles. In addition, 78 uprooted pines were surveyed in 6 localities. Most trees were attacked by T. piniperda, but only a few by T. minor. Successful colonization often resulted in the production of several thousand beetles per tree, the maximum being approximately 1,800. The attack density of T. piniperda seldom exceeded 200 egg galleries/m3 bark area, and the brood production usually remained below 1,000 beetles/m3. Much higher figures were obtained or T. minor. In T. piniperda, the rate of reproduction (i.e. the number of exit holes /egg gallery) decreased rapidly with increasing attack density, whereas T. minor seemed to be less sensitive to intraspecific competition.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5202, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1983). Flight periods of some birch timber insects. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5202.
Keywords: birch; Betula; insect damages; swarming; birch timber; Scolytus ratzeburgi; Agrilus viridis; Xiphydria camelus; Leptura quadrifasciata
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Flight periods of insects breeding on birch (Betula sp.) timber were observed by means of window flight traps baited with freshly cut birch logs in five locations in Finland from 1972 to 1976. Only few species were caught during the study. In general, these species were on the wing during midsummer, although flight periods of some of them were relatively long. Scolytus ratzeburgi Jans. caused harmful staining of wood within a month from attack, but the damage by the wood-boring pests remained negligible throughout the first storage summer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5197, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Erkki Annila, Eero Terho. (1983). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and insecticides on the population density of pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae). Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5197.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; height growth; insecticides; insect damages; prevention; nitrogen fertilization; Aradus cinnamomeus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of nitrogen fertilization and two insecticides on the occurrence of the plant pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus Panzer, was investigated in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland. Three years after the treatment the bug density was lowest in the trees treated with lindane or dimethoate. However, in spite of the increasing height growth of the trees, they did not grow significantly faster than the control trees. Nitrogen fertilization increased both bug density and the height growth of the trees. Thus, the value of nitrogen fertilization against Aradus cinnamomeus remains obscure.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Annila, E-mail: ea@mm.unknown
  • Terho, E-mail: et@mm.unknown
article id 5177, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1983). Preliminary testing of the resistance of Finnish softwood timbers to Macrotermitinae termites. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5177.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; insect damages; insect resistance; Macrotermitinae termites; sofwood timber; Juniperus communis; Microtermes; Odontotermes; Zambia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The resistance of Finnish softwood timbers to Macrotermitinae termites was tentatively tested under tropical conditions in Zambia using a field microtest method. Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Larix sibirica L. sapwood and heartwood, as well as Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood, and the sapwood of the locally grown Pinus kesiya, exhibited no natural termite resistance. On the other hand, Juniperus communis heartwood appeared to be virtually immune and the heartwood of P. Sylvestris had some resistance. There were also some differences in the resistance of the heartwood of the different P. Sylvestris individuals tested, which was correlated with the width of the annual rings in the wood samples. The termite species involved were Microtermes sp. and Odontotermes sp. The possibilities of using different types of Finnish softwood timber in the regions in the tropics where there is a risk of termite damage is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5168, category Article
Kari Heliövaara. (1982). The pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae) and the height growth rate of young Scots pines. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5168.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; insect damages; Aradus cinnamomeus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Relationships between densities of pine bark bug, Aradus cinnamomeus Panzer and the height growth of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in several habitats, including a highly infested area in Southern Finland. The slower the growth of the pines was, the greater was the height up to which bugs were found. On the average, maximum bug density was noted at a height corresponding to a fifth of the height of the tree. In stands restocked by natural generation, the greatest bug densities were noted in pines about three metres high and over twenty years old. Bug densities in trees whose height growth had been decelerating for five years were twice those in trees whose growth was accelerating. A significant negative correlation was found between the bug density and the last-year height increment.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5082, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Pith flecks and ray abnormalities in birch wood. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5082.
Keywords: Betula pendula; Betula pubescens; wood structure; insect damage; rays; Dendromyza betulae; Phytobia betulae
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Samples that had extensive pith flecks, caused by the larvae of Dendromyza betulae (now Phytobia betulae E.Kang), were collected from two trees of Betula pendula Roth and two B. pubescens Erhr. The age of the trees varied from 45 to 56 years. The effect of larvae injury on the rays was studied. The width of affected rays in both species was more than twice that of normal rays. The height and frequency also increased considerably. When describing the anatomy of Betula species the pith flecks should be treated with caution in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5074, category Article
Jukka Selander, Matti Nuorteva. (1980). Feromonivalmisteen käyttö kirjanpainajien torjumiseksi kuolevassa kuusikossa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5074.
English title: Use of synthetic pheromones for the control of spruce bark beetle in a heavily infested Norway spruce stand.
Original keywords: kuusi; kaarnakuoriaiset; torjunta; hyönteistuho; kirjanpainaja; feromonit
English keywords: bark beetles; insect damages; prevention; Ips typographus; Ips duplicatus; pheromones
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The dying-off of more trees in an over-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand caused by Ips-bark beetles was reduced by a pheromone preparation, ipslure. 20 preparations placed in trapping bolts captured more than 13,700 specimens of Ips typographus L. and Ips duplicatus Sahlb., which alone corresponded to a saving of five old trees in this valuable exhibition and seed collection stand. Attractance of ipslure to the following predators of bark beetles was also examined; Thanasimus formicarius, T. rufipes, Epuracea bickhardti, Rhizophagus ferrugineus, Pityophagus ferrugineus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
article id 5022, category Article
Jukka Selander, Paavo Kalo. (1979). Männyn taimen pihkan monoterpeenien vaikutuksista tuhonkestävyyteen tukkimiehentäitä, Hylobius abietis L. ( Coleoptera, Curculionidae) vastaan. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5022.
English title: Evaluation of resistance of Scots pine seedlings against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. in relation to their monoterpene composition.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; taimet; tukkimiehentäi; resistenssi; monoterpeeni
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Hylobius abietis; seedlings; insect damages; large pine weevil; monoterpenes; insect resistance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings and damage caused by Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) were studied during a three-year period. Olfactory responses of H. abietis was studied in laboratory with several volatile oils isolated from different kinds of P. sylvestris seedlings. Resistance of seedlings against H. Abietis was evaluated in terms of their monoterpene composition. Three aspects of resistance (preference, antibiosis and tolerance) were evaluated separately. Seedling chemotype was found to be associated with these aspects of host resistance on only minor scale. Discussion was attached to a further search for host resistance arising from other properties and constituents of oleoresin. Height growth of the seedlings recovering from weevil damage was 86–91% compared to healthy seedlings.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kalo, E-mail: pk@mm.unknown
article id 5003, category Article
Hannu Saarenmaa. (1978). The occurrence of bark beetles (Col., Scolytidae) in a dead spruce stand flooded by beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl.) . Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5003.
Original keywords: kuusi; hyönteistuhot; tulva-alueet; kaarnakuoriaiset; kanadanmajava
English keywords: bark beetles; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Castor canadensis; insect damages; Trypodendron lineatum; flooded areas; Pityogenes chalcographus; Hylurgops palliatus; Ips typographus; Dryocetes autographus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info


The aim of the study was to determine which kinds of insects had infected the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in different stands killed by flooding caused by beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl), and if there was any danger that they would subsequently cause damage in the surrounding forests. The effect of tree diameter and certain stand characteristics on the fauna of dead trees are discussed. The occurrence of different insect combinations and qualifications for their coexistence were studied.

Pityogenes chalcographus L., Trypodendron lineatum O., Hylurgops palliatus Gyll. and Dryocetes autographus Ratz. occurred most abundantly. 20 phloem or wood boring species were observed in 5 regular succession types. Secondary species occurred in a virgin stand while Ips typographus L. was found at the edge of a felling area. Owing to the flooding, species preferring moist conditions were abundant. In this case damages had not spread to the surrounding forests which, however, might be possible under certain conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarenmaa, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4871, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1972). Hybridihaavikoiden hyönteistuhoista. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4871.
English title: Insect damages in hybrid aspen stands.
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; hybridihaapa
English keywords: hybrid aspen; insect damages; Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides; Saperda populnea; Saperda carcharias; Chionaspis salicis; Populus x wettsteinii
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx.) has been grown in Finland for about 20 years, and the area of the stands is currently about 400 ha. Growing is planned to be greatly expanded to grow raw material for match industry. The aim of this investigation was to study susceptibility of hybrid aspen to insect damages. Insect damages in hybrid aspen, growing in Southern Finland, were examined in 15 stands in 1972. Saperda species were observed to be the most numerous and harmful insect species. Saperda carcharias L. occurred in 26% and Saperda populnea L. in 36% off trees inspected. Mass occurrence of Chionaspis salicis L. was observed in some sample areas.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4870, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1972). Tumamonisärmiöviruksen käytöstä ruskean mäntypistiäisen (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) torjunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4870.
English title: Use of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus in the control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.).
Original keywords: hyönteistuhot; mänty; tummamonisärmiövirus; ruskomäntypistiäinen; biologinen torjunta; virukset
English keywords: biological control; insect damage; polyhedrosis virus; Neodiprion sertifer; European pine sawfly; Borrelinavirus diprionis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Experimental applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Borrelinavirus diprionis) to control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.) was carried out during the last outbreak of this sawfly in in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland in 1963. Quantities of polyhedrosis virus preparation, collected and purified in Finland were available as concentrations packed in capsules. Spraying took place in three localities in southwestern Finland when the larvae were in I–III instars.

When Finnish and Swedish preparations were used 83–96% of larval colonies were completely destroyed within 14 days. In addition, an attempt was made to change the virus in latent stage, present already in the area, to acute stage by application of substrates which are probably harmless to pine, but were expected to stress the larvae. Ground quarts as spray had the best lethal effect upon larvae.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4813, category Article
Bo Långström. (1970). Pakkaustapojen vaikutuksesta talvivarastoitujen männyn taimien istutukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4813.
English title: The effect of packing methods on the field survival and growth of winter-stored plants of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; kasvu; taimet; kylmävarasto; talvivarastointi; kuolleisuus; tukkimiehentäi; torjunta-aine
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nursery; Scots pine; planting; seedlings; cold storage; winter storage; Hylobious abietis; large pine weevil; insecticide; field survival; packing methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of four packing methods on the field survival and growth of seedlings and transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stored over the winter in a cold-storage cellar. The following sorts of plants were used: one-year-old seedlings (1+0) grown in a plastic greenhouse, two-year-old (2+0) open grown seedlings and three-year-old open grown transplants. These plants were stored in open wooden boxes, in sealed plastic bags, in boxes with wet peat on the bottom and in plastic-laminated paper bags.

The control plants were of the same types and were kept in a nursery over the winter. The storage was carried out in a mantle-chilled cold-storage from October 1966 to May 1967. The temperature in the cold-storage was kept around -2 °C and the relative humidity of the air over 90%. The water content of a randomly selected sample plants showed no increase in water deficit after the storing. Part of the seedlings were transplanted in the nursery and the rest were planted in a clear-cut area. A number of the latter plants were treated with an insecticide (1% Intaktol, which contains DDT, Lindane and dieldrin) before planting. All the experiments were examined after one growing season and the planting experiments the next fall.

The transplants (2+1) in the nursery, and in the forest had survived and grown better than the seedlings. In the nursery the 1+0 seedlings survived and grew better than the 2+0 seedlings. There was no difference in mortality between the seedlings. After the first growing season occasional significant differences between the packing methods were observed, but they disappeared during the second growing season. Thus, all packing methods proved to be as successful as the control method without winter storage.

Transplants were more often attacked by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) than the smaller seedlings. The damage, however, was considerably greater on the seedlings because of their lower resistance. No significant differences in the Hylobius-attack between the packing methods could be observed. The Intaktol-treated plants were as often attacked as the untreated ones, but the damage was slighter on the treated ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Långström, E-mail: bl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4812, category Article
Pentti K. Räsänen, Aarno Koukkula, Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1970). Pakkauksen, varastoimisen ja valeistutuksen vaikutus männyn taimien istutuskelpoisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4812.
English title: The effect of packing, storing and heeling-in on the field survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänviljely; istutus; metsäpuun taimet; taimet; varastointi; kuolleisuus; kastelu; tukkimiehentäi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; mortality; storage; Hylobius abietis; seedlings; large pine weevil; insecticide; field survival
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present study was to establish, by means of planting experiments, the influence of different packing, heeling-in and watering as well as the length of the storage period on the development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, in all 2,090 seedlings, that had been lifted from the nursery bed in spring. The plants were packed in bundles and into plastic sacks in 1965 (6 storage methods) and in 1966 (3 storage methods). Control seedlings were planted without storing at the time when storage of the test material begun. The plantations were followed 3–4 years.

Storage for two weeks in the different ways and planting without storage gave similar results when seedling survival was compared. Storage in plastic sack proved to be as good as storage in bundles in a cellar, and healing-in in moist soil or in a drain were both usable methods. Watering the seedlings did not improve the results, which indicates that the storage caused no serious lack of water.

After four growing seasons an average of 19,6% of the seedlings of the 1965 experiment died, the bulk of them by the end of the first growing season. Despite control treatment, Hylobious abietis caused serious damages. In the plantations of the year 1966 mortality of the seedlings was under 5% by the end of third growing season. During the first two growing seasons after planting differences in growth of the seedlings stored in different ways could be observed in the plantations of the year 1965, but the differences levelled out later. In the plantations established in 1966 no differences in growth occurred.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Koukkula, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown
  • Yli-Vakkuri, E-mail: py@mm.unknown
article id 4746, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1967). Tikaskuoriaisesta (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv., Col., Scolytidae) kuorellisen havupuutavaran pilaajana. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 2 article id 4746.
English title: Damages caused to timber with bark by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum) in Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; puutavara; hyönteistuhot; hyönteiset; kaarnakuoriaiset; havutikaskuoriainen; varastointi; puutavarapinot
English keywords: bark beetles; roundwood; fellings; insect damage; spruce ambrosia beetle; Trypodendron lineatum; forest depot
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper studied the effect of felling time and conditions in the forest depot of timber to damages caused by spruce ambrosia beetle (Trypodendron lineatum Oliv.) to coniferous timber with bark, both experimentally and observing forest depots in Finland. Effects of fellings was studied by studying the abundance of the beetles in logging residue.

The results show that the spruce ambrosia beetles favour timber felled during the late autumn and winter, stored in a shaded place in the forest. In addition, new spruce stumps maintain and increase the beetle population. Fellings in the forest will increase population during the next year and cause damages in forest depot of timber nearby, because the insect breeds in the stumps. The experiments showed that it is possible to diminish the damages caused by the beetle to timber with bark by spraying with insecticides, and timing the fellings and transport of timber so that there is no timber in the forest in the spring during the time when the insect swarms.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4736, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1967). Hakkuutähteissä elävien hyönteisten käyttömahdollisuuksista hakkuun ajankohdan määrittämisessä. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4736.
English title: Potential in using determination of insect species breeding in the logging residue to estimate the time of the logging.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; korjuuajankohta; hakkuun ajankohta; hakkuutähteet; hyönteiset; kaarnakuoriaiset
English keywords: bark beetles; Norway spruce; insects; Scots pine; logging time; timing of felling; logging residue
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Degree of decomposition of logging residue, and decay in stumps have been used in forest inventories to estimate the time of the felling. In this paper, a method was developed to use insects breeding in the logging residue to determine how long ago the felling took place. The method is based on the arrival and rate of development of the different species of bark beetles that breed in the logging residue.

The most suitable insect species to be used in the purpose of timing the age of logging residue were defined, and their occurrence in different tree species and fellings performed at different times of the year were described. The species can be easily identified by gallery systems characteristic to the species.

It is concluded that the method does not suit for broadleaved species, because there is no common insects suitable for this purpose. Also, the time of swarming of the insects depends on the weather conditions in the spring, which makes it difficult to give definite dateshe progress of the spring has to be taken into account when the occurrence of the insects is used in the determination of the time of the felling. In addition, local conditions, such as shading, affect drying of the branches, and can influence the occurrence of the insects. For Scots pine and Norway spruce the age of the logging residue can be determined precisely only at most two years back.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4693, category Article
Martti Nenonen, Juhani Jukola. (1960). Tukkimiehen täin (Hylobius abietis L.) tuhoista mäntytaimistoissa ja niiden torjunnasta DDT :n avulla. Silva Fennica vol. 0 no. 104 article id 4693.
English title: Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) injuries and their control by DDT in Scots pine seedling stands.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil preparation; Scots pine; planting; Hylobius abietis; insecticides; seedling damages; insect damages; DDT
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out more about pine weevil (Hylobious abietis L.) injuries in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands and their control by means of DDT. For this purpose, inventories were made of seedling stands established earlier. Control experiments were made on burnt areas by planting seedlings dipped in a DDT emulsion.

The results of the inventories show that injuries caused by pine weevils can, in certain circumstances, especially in seedling stands established by planting, cause the complete failure in artificial regeneration. The extent and quality of the injuries vary greatly according to planting method, treatment of the cutting area, age of the seedling stand, environmental factors, and weather conditions. The most extensive injuries occur in regeneration areas of old Norway spruce stands burnt after clear cutting and planted with Scots pine seedlings. Injuries are greater in seedling stands established by planting, especially after broadcast burning, than in seedling stands originating either from artificial or natural seeding. The quality of the patch for sowing or planting has a considerable effect on the quantity and character of the injuries: in a patch from which organic matter has been removed, injuries do not appear or they are slighter. Seedlings can be protected effectively and economically by dipping their tops up to the root collar, in a DDT emulsion before planting.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nenonen, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jukola, E-mail: jj@mm.unknown
article id 4464, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1932). Tutkimuksia kaasutuhoista Imatran valtionpuistossa. Silva Fennica vol. no. 23 article id 4464.
English title: Studies on gas damages in the state forests in Imatra.
Original keywords: ilman epäpuhtaudet; Imatra; kloori; lehtikato; metsätuhot; neulaskato; hyönteistuhot
English keywords: damage; needle loss; insect damage; air pollutants; chlorine; emissions; leaf injuries
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A forest damage was detected in spring 1931 near electro-chemical factory in Imatra in Eastern Finland. It was deduced that it was caused by a gas discharge from the factory. A survey was made to describe the damages. Forests in the damaged area of five hectares were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated and 60-80 years old. According to the factory, the exhaust gases contained 0.4 mg chlorine per liter. In addition, chlorate containing liquids evaporated thorough the chimney, which seemed to have been the main cause of the damage. The chlorates may have concentrated in the snow covering the trees during the winter. The Scots pine trees had lost all the needles in spring, but grew new needles in the summer. In some trees the new needles were few or undeveloped. Some mild damages were noticed in pine and Betula sp. during the growing season. Forest edges and trees higher that the other trees were worst damaged. Pine was most sensitive to the emission. Pine weakened by the gas damages were attacked by insects, the most important being Pissodes sp. The secondary insect damage is likely to kill the surviving trees. The dying pines should be removed only if it is necessary to prevent the spreading of insect damage. The trees may hinder the spreading of further gas emissions. In future, other tree species should be preferred over pine.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4458, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1931). Siikakankaan mäntytaimistojen tuhoista. Silva Fennica vol. no. 17 article id 4458.
English title: Siikakankaan mäntytaimistojen tuhoista.
Keywords: seedling damage; planting; seedling stand; insect damage; fungal diseases; sowing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Regeneration of large open areas in dry mineral soil forest sites that usually grow Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) have several problems. For instance, soil frost, snow, ground vegetation and dryness can prevent germination and growth of seedlings. The damages caused by insects and fungi in seedlings of a large burned area in Siikakangas in Southern Finland was studied. A forest fire burned the area nearly completely in 1909, and 310 hectares have been sowed or planted with mostly Scots pine during the following years. Minor areas have been regenerated with Pinus montana Noll, Pinus excelsa Lamb., Pinus murrayana Balf. and Larix sibirica Ledeb.

No completely healthy pine seedling stands could be found in the area. About 41% of the seedlings in the sample plots were damaged. The most common causes for damage were Evetria resinella (now Retinia resinella L.), Luperus pinicola (now Calomicrus pinicola (Duft.)), Pissodes notatus (now Pissodes castaneus Degeer), Evetria turionana Hb. and Hylobious abietis L. The most usual fungal disease was Lophodermium sp. Evetria resinella caused damages in all the area. Evetria turionana, Pissodes notatus and Hylobius abietina were found in the older seedling stands. Other damages were more localized. The slacks in the terrain seemed to have most damages, the original cause being probably soil frost. Some damages, as Lophodermium, were related to the density of the seedlings, especially in the sown areas. Cleaning of seedling stands could decrease these damages. Planting seems to have succeeded better than patch sowing.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)

Category: Article

article id 7467, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1956). Hakkuiden vaikutuksesta kaarnakuoriaisten esiintymiseen eräällä metsäalueella Etelä-Hämeessä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 4 article id 7467.
English title: Effect of fellings on bark beetle population in a forest area in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: hakkuut; kuusi; metsänhoito; hyönteistuhot; kaarnakuoriaiset
English keywords: forest management; bark beetles; Norway spruce; Picea abies; fellings; insect damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Bark beetle populations live usually in a balance in natural forests, and outbreaks occur seldom. The populations have been found to increase in managed forests. Fellings affect the structure of the forests, which influence the living conditions of the insects, and produce material for reproduction. In this study the occurrence of bark beetles was studied in a forest area in Etelä-Häme in Southern Finland using line plot survey.

The forests in the area were Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) dominated. Over third of the 140 sample plots studied were in forests which had never been cut or it was over ten years to the last logging. Bark beetles of 26 different species were found in 66 of the sample plots. The most common species was six-toothed spruce bark beetle (Pityogenes chalcographus L.), which was due to the abundance of growth material suitable for the species in the area. New species in the area were common double-eyed spruce bark beetle (Polygraphus polygraphus L.), Pityophthorus micrographus L., and Dryocetes-beetle (either Dryocetes autographus or D. hectographus). The fellings increased the occurrence of beetles. The amount and quality of logging residue affected the abundance of the insects.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7435, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1954). On the possibility of pests being conveyed in export timber : survey of biological requirements. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 23 article id 7435.
Keywords: insects; timber transport; timber import; timber export; pests; plant protection; conveying of pests; plant protection regulations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Many countries have enacted plant protection laws or statutes that consist timber imported into a country, both raw wood and processed timber. This has caused some inconvenience to the international timber trade. Necessary protection against the spread of pests via export is fully acceptable, but the protection should be based on actual need.
When considering processed or barked raw timber, the problem concerns only species that pass their development in the wood. The four most important biological requirements affecting the risk are 1) the tree species of the importing country and affinity of the pest, 2) climatic conditions of the importing country and the pest’s range and adaptability to the climate, 3) biological factors regulating the population, and 4) suitability of the individual development of the pest for transmission. These risks are discussed in the article.

It is concluded that it is possible largely to eliminate the species that might be conveyed via export timber. It is often possible to decide in advance what danger threatens the importing country from species that might be conveyed via export timber. This would make it possible to adapt plant protection regulations to suit the relation between the exporting and importing countries.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7383, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1946). Kuusikoiden kuivumisesta metsätuho- ja metsänhoidollisena kysymyksenä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 7383.
English title: Drying of Norway spruce stands as forest damage and forest management issues in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsänhoito; metsätuhot; hyönteistuhot; kuusikko; sienitaudit; juurikääpä; laho; kuivuminen; maannousema
English keywords: forest management; Norway spruce; Picea abies; root rot; forest damage; insect damage; fungal diseases
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Observatons of drying of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands increased in 1930s in Southern Finland. The aim of the study was to analyse the advance and causes of drying. The work was begun in 1930s before the Second World War, and the damages caused to the forests by the war was used as supplemental observations in the study. A special method, drying analysis, was developed to study the process. It was used both in cases of insect and fungal diseases in the four research areas in Raivola and Ruotsinkylä. In addition, 7 observation areas were studied.

Several causes for drying of the trees were observed in the Norway spruce stands. These included European spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), root rot (Heterobasidion annosum), pine weevils (Pissodes sp.), bark beetles and honey fungus (Armillaria mellea).

The role of primary and secondary causes for drying, resistance of the trees and the drying process are discussed. Finally, the influence of forest management in drying process is analysed. Forests in natural state can be considered to be in an ideal balance. On the other hand, forest management can be used to maintain the vitality and resistance of the forests. Drying of Norway spruce stands can be taken into consideration when the stands are managed.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7351, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1940). Tuloksia Pohjankankaan ja Hämeenkankaan metsänviljelyksistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 7351.
English title: Studies on artificial regeneration in Pohjankangas and Hämeenkangas in Southern Finland.
Original keywords: kylvö; mänty; metsäpalo; metsänuudistaminen; taimikko; kulo; hyönteistuho; sienituho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; regeneration; Scots pine; seedling damage; ; seedling stands; insect damage
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The regeneration of forests in Hämeenkangas area in Southern Finland has been difficult due to various damages from the middle of the 1800s. Few seed trees were left in the area, and artificial regeneration has been used since 1880s. The area became an experimental area of the Forest Research Institute in 1924. The aim of the study was to survey the area before it was transferred to the Finnish Defense Forces.

The original Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest of the esker area suffered from many forest fires. The total area is 13,000-14,000 ha, of which the experimental forests of Forest Research Institute cover 6,000 ha. The area is dry upland forest, and drought affects the survival of germlings. Soil frost is a major cause of loss of young seedlings. Sowing method affects the early development of the seedlings. Band sowing proved to be the best method regarding the soil frost. A total of 39 different harmful insect species, 8 pathogen species and 7 other causes of damages have been detected in the area.

The development of seedling stands follow a certain pattern, reported also in other studies. Many of the pine seedling stands develop well until they reach a certain height. After that seedlings begin to suffer from damages, but after reaching another stage develop normally. The damages affect the height growth of the seedlings. Some common damages are caused by Pissoides weevils, needle damages caused by certain beetles, shoot damages by Evetria resinella, and pine blister rust (Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum).

The PDF includes a summary in German
  • Kangas, E-mail: ek@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7304, category Article
Uunio Saalas. (1934). Suomalaisista hyönteisnimistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 27 article id 7304.
English title: The Finnish nomenclature of insects.
Original keywords: hyönteiset; metsähyönteiset; nimistö; nimistökomitea
English keywords: nomenclature; forest insects
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The need for standard Finnish names for the harmful or beneficial insects in agriculture rose in the 1930s, and a committee was formed in 1932 to work out nomenclature for the insect species. In 1933, a similar committee was formed to compile a nomenclature for forest insects. The old popular names, if such names existed, were used primarily. Some of the insects had been named also in the earlier literature, even if all the names had not been taken in common use. Some names were translated from the scientific names. Emphasis was given to the habits or habitats of the insect. An attempt was made to shorten the former names if needed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saalas, E-mail: us@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7088, category Article
Uunio Saalas. (1919). Kaarnakuoriaisista ja niiden aiheuttamista vahingoista Suomen metsissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 7088.
English title: Bark beetles and insect damages in Finnish forest.
Original keywords: kaarnakuoriaiset; hyönteistuho; entomologia
English keywords: forest pests; Tomicus piniperda; insect damage; Pityogenes chalcographus; Ips typographus; entomology; Scolytus Ratzburgi
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to investigate the abundance of bark beetle species and their damage in Finland. The bark beetle populations were studied in several areas in Finland, both in sites with known beetle damage and without. Two-meter wide lines were measured in the sample plots, where all trees were studied for bark beetle damage in the stem and the crown of the trees. The abundance of bark beetle species and the beetle damages in 25 study areas, and 52 different species are discussed in detail.

Divided by their lifestyle, the most important groups of bark beetles are the pine shoot beetles (Tomicus sp.), beetles reproducing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems and branches under the bark, beetles reproducing in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stems and branches under the bark, beetles living in the other coniferous trees, beetles reproducing in roots, beetles reproducing under the Betula sp. bark, beetles reproducing in other deciduous trees and beetles reproducing inside of the stems. Of individual species, Blastophagus piniperda (now Tomicus piniperda) and B. minor cause worst damage to pine and Ips typographus (L.) and Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) to spruce. Serious damage is caused also by Xyloterus lineatus to coniferous trees, Polygraphus polygraphus and P. subopacus to Norway spruce and Scolytus Ratzburgi to Betula sp.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Saalas, E-mail: us@mm.unknown (email)
article id 7505, category Article
Rauno Väisänen, Kari Heliövaara. (1994). Assessment of insect occurrence in boreal forests based on satellite imagery and field measurements. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 243 article id 7505.
Keywords: biodiversity; remote sensing; insect pests; geological maps; Scolytids; logistic regression models
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The presence/absence data of 27 forest insect taxa (Retinia resinella, Formica spp., Pissodes spp., several scolytids) and recorded environmental variation were used to investigate the applicability of modelling insect occurrence based on satellite imagery. The sampling was based on 1,800 sample plots (25 m by 25 m) placed along the sides of 30 equilateral triangles (side 1 km) in a fragmented forest area (approximately 100 km2) in Evo, Southern Finland. The triangles were overlaid on land use maps interpreted from satellite images (Landsat TM 30 m multispectral scanner imagery 1991) and digitized geological maps. Insect occurrence was explained using either environmental variables measured in the field or those interpreted from the land use and geological maps. The fit of logistic regression models carried between species, possibly because some species may be associated with characteristics of single trees while other species with stand characteristics. The occurrence of certain insect species at least, especially those associated with Scots pine, could be relatively accurately assessed indirectly on the basis of satellite imagery and geological maps. Models based on both remotely sensed and geological data better predicted the distribution of forest insects except in the case of Xylechinus pilosus, Dryocetes sp. and Trypodendron lineatum, where the differences were relatively small in favour of the models based on field measurements. The number of species was related to habitat compartment size and distance from the habitat edge calculated from the land use maps, but logistic regressions suggested that other environmental variables in general masked the effect of these variables in species occurrence at the present scale.

  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
article id 7606, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen, Auli Immonen. (1991). Quantitative biogeography of the bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in northern Europe. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 219 article id 7606.
Keywords: climate change; boreal forests; biodiversity; Nordic countries; multivariate methods; insect pests; biogeography; Scolytids; logistic regression models; faunal changes; Fennoscandia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Biogeographical patterns of the Scolytidae in Fennoscandia and Denmark, based on species incidence data from the approximately 70 km x 70 km quadrats (n = 221) used by Lekander et al. (1977), were classified to environmental variables using multivariate methods (two-way indicator species analysis, detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis).

The distributional patterns of scolytid species composition showed similar features to earlier presented zonations based on vegetation composition. One major difference, however, was that the region was more clearly divided in an east-west direction. Temperature variables associated with the location of the quadrat had the highest canonical coefficient values on the first axis of the CCA. Although these variables were the most important determinants of the biogeographical variation in the beetle species assemblages, annual precipitation and the distribution of Picea abies also improved the fit of the species data.

Samples with the most deviant rarity and typicality indices for the scolytid species assempblages in each quadrat were concentrated in several southern Scandinavian quadrats, in some quadrats in northern Sweden, and especially on the Swedish islands (Öland, Gotland, Gotska Sandön) in the Baltic Sea. The use of rarity indices which do not take the number of species per quadrat, also resulted high values for areas near Stockholm and Helsinki with well-known faunas. Methodological tests in which the real changes in the distribution of Ips acuminatus and I. amitinus were used as indicators showed that the currently available multivariate methods are sensitive to small faunal shifts even, and thus permit analysis of the fauna in relation to environmental changes. However, this requires more detailed monitoring of the species’ distributions over longer time spans.

Distribution of seven species (Scolytus intricatus, S. laevis, Hylurgops glabratus, Crypturgus cinereus, Pityogenes salasi, Ips typographus, and Cyleborus dispar) were predicted by logistic regression models using climatic variables. In spite of the deficiencies in the data and the environmental variables selected, the models were relatively good for several but not for all species. The potential effects of climate change on bark beetles are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
  • Immonen, E-mail: ai@mm.unknown
article id 7636, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1984). Effects of modern forestry on Northwestern European forest invertebrates: a synthesis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 189 article id 7636.
Keywords: forest fires; forest management; insects; forestry; intensive silviculture; Scandinavia; forest invertebrates; primeval forests; changes in boreal forest dynamics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effects of modern forestry on northwest European forest invertebrates are summarized and analysed mainly on the basis of published literature. The direct influence of different practices including clear-cutting, thinning, burning-over, ploughing, changes in tree species composition of stands, fertilization, insecticides, pheromones and biological control are discussed from a forest zoological point of view. Also, the indirect effects of general changes in boreal forest dynamics, loss of primeval forests, cessation of natural fires and the dominance of young stands are described. The direct effects of different silvicultural practices on the species composition and diversity of forest invertebrates are usually considered to be striking but transient. However, when large areas are treated, the species associated with primeval forests, especially with the wood composition system in them, as well as the species associated with fires, seem to have drastically declined. In northwest Europe, efficient forestry has not caused such serious pest problems as is known from tropical countries or North America.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 7545, category Article
Lalli Laine, Matti Nuorteva. (1970). On the antagonistic influence of insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. on root rot disease spongy saprot (Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke). Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 0 no. 111 article id 7545.
Keywords: antagonism; root rot; Fomitopsis annosa; insect pathogenic
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article presents the studies about antagonistic influence of insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and B. tenella (Delacr.) Siem. against root rot diseases. The experiments were conducted in laboratory where the fungi were grown in Petri dishes. The results show that these fungi are antagonistic with each other. The used stem of B. bassiana was proved as strongest antagonist against all studied F.annosus.

The PDF contains a summary in German. 

  • Laine, E-mail: ll@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown

Category: Research article

article id 9940, category Research article
Esteban Ceriani-Nakamurakare, Sergio Ramos, Carolina A. Robles, María V. Novas, María F. D´Jonsiles, Paola Gonzalez-Audino, Cecilia Carmarán. (2018). Metagenomic approach of associated fungi with Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae). Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9940.
Keywords: ambrosia; forest pest; metagenomic; fungi; Platypodinae; insect-fungus interactions
Highlights: There were no significant effects of host plant and location on fungal richness; Two fungal species, belonging to Fusarium and Candida genera, were present in all the studied associations; Results suggest that host plant identity would not be crucial to determine the composition of fungal communities associated to Megaplatypus mutatus.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Megaplatypus mutatus is a major forest pest in Argentina and an emerging pest in Europe. In this study the multitrophic interactions between M. mutatus and associated fungi were assessed with a metagenomics approach (454-pyrosequencing). A total of 270 collection points from insect galleries from three locations in Argentina were pooled for pyrosequencing analyses. Two hosts, Populus deltoides and Casuarina cunninghamiana, were independently evaluated to characterize the fungal communities associated to M. mutatus; compare the culture-independent approach with previous culturing studies, in terms of data recovery related to the fungal community composition, and test the specificity of the fungal communities amongst locations and hosts. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model was performed to compare the fungal richness in each dataset, which showed no significant differences between taxa richness amongst locations. Principal Coordinates Analyses showed a separation between fungal communities within the same host, suggesting that host identity would not be crucial to determine the specificity in fungal communities. Candida insectalens and one Fusarium species, present in all hosts and locations, achieved 37.6% of the total relative frequency per taxa. These results complement the data from culturing methods previously reported, thus improving the accuracy and understanding of the fungal assemblages associated to M. mutatus.

  • Ceriani-Nakamurakare, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Depto. Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental. Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Micología y Botánica (INMIBO). Buenos Aires, (C1428EHA) Argentina E-mail:
  • Ramos, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Concordia. Entre Ríos, (E3200) Argentina E-mail:
  • Robles, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Depto. Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental. Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Micología y Botánica (INMIBO). Buenos Aires, (C1428EHA) Argentina E-mail:
  • Novas, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Depto. Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental. Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Micología y Botánica (INMIBO). Buenos Aires, (C1428EHA) Argentina E-mail:
  • D´Jonsiles, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Depto. Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental. Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Micología y Botánica (INMIBO). Buenos Aires, (C1428EHA) Argentina E-mail:
  • Gonzalez-Audino, Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CITEFA-CONICET). Buenos Aires, (B1603ALO) Argentina E-mail:
  • Carmarán, Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CITEFA-CONICET). Buenos Aires, (B1603ALO) Argentina E-mail: (email)
article id 1495, category Research article
Per-Ola Olsson, Tuula Kantola, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Anna Maria Jönsson, Lars Eklundh. (2016). Development of a method for monitoring of insect induced forest defoliation – limitation of MODIS data in Fennoscandian forest landscapes. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1495.
Keywords: remote sensing; insect defoliation detection; coarse-resolution; EVI2; z-score; Sentinel-2
Highlights: We developed and tested a method to monitor insect induced defoliation in forests based on coarse-resolution satellite data (MODIS); MODIS data may fail to detect defoliation in fragmented landscapes, especially if defoliation history is long. More homogenous forests results in higher detection accuracies; The method may be applied to future coarse and medium-resolution satellite data with high temporal resolution.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

We investigated if coarse-resolution satellite data from the MODIS sensor can be used for regional monitoring of insect disturbances in Fennoscandia. A damage detection method based on z-scores of seasonal maximums of the 2-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) was developed. Time-series smoothing was applied and Receiver Operating Characteristics graphs were used for optimisation. The method was developed in fragmented and heavily managed forests in eastern Finland dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (pinaceae) and with defoliation of European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) and common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). The method was also applied to subalpine mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. Czerepanovii N.I. Orlova) forests in northern Sweden, infested by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata Borkhausen) and winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.). In Finland, detection accuracies were fairly low with 50% of the damaged stands detected, and a misclassification of healthy stands of 22%. In areas with long outbreak histories the method resulted in extensive misclassification. In northern Sweden accuracies were higher, with 75% of the damage detected and a misclassification of healthy samples of 19%. Our results indicate that MODIS data may fail to detect damage in fragmented forests, particularly when the damage history is long. Therefore, regional studies based on these data may underestimate defoliation. However, the method yielded accurate results in homogeneous forest ecosystems and when long-enough periods without damage could be identified. Furthermore, the method is likely to be useful for insect disturbance detection using future medium-resolution data, e.g. from Sentinel‑2.

  • Olsson, Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Kantola, Texas A & M University, Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College Station, TX, USA E-mail:
  • Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland E-mail:
  • Jönsson, Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden E-mail:
  • Eklundh, Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Sölvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden E-mail:
article id 1267, category Research article
Caroline Mary Adrianne Franklin, Karen A Harper, Liam Kyte Murphy. (2015). Structural dynamics at boreal forest edges created by a spruce budworm outbreak. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1267.
Keywords: edge influence; balsam fir; insect disturbance; structure; forest influence
Highlights: Insect outbreak edges were 10 m wide with different canopy cover, stem density and tree structural diversity than adjacent ecosystems; Although edge influence on forest structure was weak, forest influence was stronger and extended further, creating an edge zone skewed towards the disturbed area; After thirty years, high-contrast and structurally-diverse transition zones persist on the landscape.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Natural disturbances such as insect outbreaks create boundaries that influence vegetation patterns and ecological processes.  To better understand the effects of natural edge creation on relatively intact forests and adjacent disturbed areas, we investigated forest structure on both sides of 30 year-old forest edges created by a spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) outbreak in the boreal forest of Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada.  Our objectives were: 1) to determine edge influence (compared to interior forest) and forest influence (compared to disturbed areas) on vegetation structure, and 2) to gain insight into the structural development of the edges.  Canopy cover, tree density, radial growth and deadwood were sampled in 5 m x 20 m plots along 120 m transects across six edges.  Randomization tests were used to estimate the magnitude and distance of edge and forest influence.  Narrow transition zones approximately 10 m wide characterized the spruce budworm-induced edges.  Edge influence did not extend into the forest; however, forest influence on structure was detected up to 40 m from the edge into the disturbed area.  We found evidence of the insect outbreak in the form of reduced radial growth during the disturbance across the entire disturbed area-forest gradient, which indicates that spruce budworm activity may not have ceased directly at the edge.  Tree mortality caused by the insect outbreak resulted in snags, many of which have transformed into logs since the outbreak collapsed.  Spruce budworm outbreak-induced forest edges are narrow but dynamic boundaries separating two distinct vegetation communities in the boreal landscape.
  • Franklin, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H1, Canada E-mail: (email)
  • Harper, School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Suite 5010, 6100 University Ave., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5, Canada E-mail:
  • Murphy, Department of Environmental Science, Saint Mary’s University, 923 Robie St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3, Canada E-mail:
article id 86, category Research article
Mats Jonsell, Jesper Hansson. (2011). Logs and stumps in clearcuts support similar saproxylic beetle diversity: implications for bioenergy harvest. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 86.
Keywords: biodiversity; beetles; bioenergy; Coleoptera; logs; insects; stumps
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Stumps from clear cuts are increasingly used for bioenergy. Extracting this wood will reduce the habitat available for saproxylic (wood-living) organisms. As little is known about the species assemblages that will be affected, we investigated the diversity of saproxylic beetles in stumps on clear-felled sites and as a reference, we compared it with the diversity in downed logs. Stumps and logs of aspen (Populus tremula L.), birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and B. verrucosa Ehrh.[syn. B. pendula Roth]), spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were examined in clear cuts of two different ages: one summer old and 4–5 years old. The beetles were sampled by sieving bark (0.25 m2) peeled from the wood. The samples were taken in pairs of one log and one stump situated close together and of the same tree species, age since death and diameter. In total 3348 saproxylic beetles belonging to 124 species were found in 176 samples. The stumps had a similar number of species to the logs both as measured per sample and as an accumulated number. Exceptions were 4–5 years old wood of birch and pine where the number was significantly higher in the stumps. The number of red-listed species was also similar between stumps and logs. Species composition was more different between the stumps and logs of conifers than of deciduous trees. We conclude that clear-felled stumps have a diverse saproxylic insect fauna. This has to be taken into account if large scale extraction of logging stumps is implemented.
  • Jonsell, Swedish University of Agrarian Sciences, Dept of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden E-mail: (email)
  • Hansson, Swedish University of Agrarian Sciences, Dept of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden E-mail:
article id 469, category Research article
Henri Vanhanen, Timo O. Veteli, Sonja Päivinen, Seppo Kellomäki, Pekka Niemelä. (2007). Climate change and range shifts in two insect defoliators: gypsy moth and nun moth – a model study. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 469.
Keywords: insects; forest pests; CLIMEX; Lymantria monacha; Lymantria dispar; poleward shift; geographical range
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Environmental factors influenced by global climate change determine the distribution ranges of organisms. Especially ectothermic animals are expected to shift their distribution ranges northwards in the next hundred years or so. In this study simulations made with CLIMEX-modelling software were used to predict the future distribution ranges of two Central European serious forest pest species: the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) and the gypsy moth (L. dispar L). The software calculates an ecoclimatic index based on the life cycle requirements of a species and thus represents the probability of a viable population to exist at a certain location. Three different climate warming scenarios were considered: temperature increase of 1.4, 3.6 and 5.8°C. Simulations generated with the current climate conditions corresponded well to the current distributions of the species. The climate warming scenarios shifted the northern boundary of the distribution for both of these species north by c. a. 500–700 km. Also the southern edge of the ranges retracted northwards by 100–900 km. The results of this study are in agreement with the results of empirical studies on other species. Being serious pest species, these species pose a potential threat to silviculture and therefore, have to be considered in the planning of forest management practices.
  • Vanhanen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Veteli, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Päivinen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Niemelä, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
article id 360, category Research article
Timo Kurkela, Tarmo Aalto, Martti Varama, Risto Jalkanen. (2005). Defoliation by the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini) and subsequent growth reduction in Scots pine: a retrospective approach. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 4 article id 360.
Keywords: height growth; NTM; defoliation; insect attack; needle density; needle production; needle retention; radial growth; herbivory
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
The foliage status in the main stem of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) was studied retrospectively using the needle trace method (NTM) on a stand, seriously defoliated by the pine sawfly (Diprion pini) in the 1980s. Needle density increased abruptly in the seasons following the defoliation. The strongest reduction in annual needle production occurred one year later. As a consequence of lower needle production, the annual number of attached needles decreased three to five years after the defoliation. Needle retention and the average age of attached needles tended to increase after defoliation. In analyses of covariance with the NTM variables, needle density (logarithmic transformed values) and average age of attached needles, had the highest, significant, negative relationship with radial and height increments both in the period prior to the defoliation and in the time when the trees were suffering from defoliation. The relationships between height increment and the number of needles and needle loss were positive and significant. Also radial increment had a positive relationship with the number of needles but not with needle loss. Interestingly, an abrupt increase in the needle density gave a good indication of the effects of a sudden defoliation in pines.
  • Kurkela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Aalto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail:
  • Varama, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland E-mail:
article id 592, category Research article
Marja-Liisa Juntunen. (2001). Use of pesticides in Finnish forest nurseries in 1996. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 2 article id 592.
Keywords: herbicides; fungicides; insecticides; seedlings; survey study
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
In 1996 a questionnaire on seedling production and use of pesticides was sent to 33 forest nurseries in Finland. Twenty-eight nurseries answered the questionnaire; thus the survey covered about 80% of the Finnish production of forest seedlings. According to this study, the Finnish nurseries together are using about 1000 kilograms of pesticides (as active ingredient, a.i.) annually. The most used herbicide was terbutylazine (Gardoprim-Neste®), and half of the total amount of fungicide used was chlorothalonil (Bravo 500®). Three fourths of the insecticide products had permethrin as the active ingredient. The nurseries applied, on average, 1.7 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha annually, although the amount varied considerably between nurseries. In production of container seedlings the highest mean amounts of pesticides were applied to pine seedlings (9.5 kg/ha) and the lowest to spruce seedlings (0.9 kg/ha). To the fields of bareroot seedlings the nurseries applied, on average, 3.9 kg pesticides (a.i.)/ha. Mean amounts of pesticide (a.i.) per 1000 seedlings grown in containers were almost the same for birch and pine production, 1.6 and 1.7 grams, respectively; for production of spruce seedlings the comparable values were less than 0.5 grams. For production of bareroot seedlings the nurseries used about four times more pesticides than for container seedlings.
  • Juntunen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland E-mail: (email)

Category: Research note

article id 10262, category Research note
Markus Melin, Heli Viiri, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Riku Elfving, Seppo Neuvonen. (2020). From a rare inhabitant into a potential pest – status of the nun moth in Finland based on pheromone trapping. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10262.
Keywords: climate change; forest health; forestry; Lymantria monacha; forest damage; insect; range expansion
Highlights: The nun moth is a significant defoliator of coniferous forests in Central-Europe; In Finland, the populations have grown and expanded northwards; Pheromone trapping confirmed the species’ presence throughout central- and southern Finland; The risk of the nun moth becoming a pest for Finland is real as the area offers endless habitats, and climatic conditions are becoming more favourable; This note describes the results from the first nun moth surveys conducted in 2018 and 2019.
Abstract | Full text in HTML | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Forests are affected by climate change in various ways. This includes abiotic factors such as droughts, but also biotic damage by pest insects. There are numerous examples from cases where pest insects have benefitted from longer growing seasons or from warmer summers. Similarly, new pest insects have been able to expand their range due to climatic conditions that have changed from hostile to tolerable. Such seems to be the case with the nun moth (Lymantria monacha), an important defoliator of coniferous trees in Europe. For centuries, the species has had massive outbreaks across Central-Europe, while it has been a rare inhabitant in Northern Europe. Recently, the nun moth population in Finland has not only expanded in range, but also grown more abundant. This research note describes the results from the first years (2018–2019) of a monitoring program that is being conducted with pheromone traps across central and southern Finland. So far, the northernmost individuals were trapped near the 64 N degrees. However, there were more southern locations where no moths were trapped. The species was present in every trapping site below the latitude of 62 N degrees. More importantly, at some sites the abundance of the nun moth suggested that local forest damage may already occur. Given the current climatic scenarios for Fennoscandia, it is likely that the nun moth populations will continue to grow, which is why systematic surveys on their abundance and range expansions will be topical.

  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID E-mail: (email)
  • Viiri, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; UPM-Kymmene Oyj, UPM Forest, Åkerlundinkatu 11 B, FI-33100 Tampere, Finland E-mail:
  • Tikkanen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland E-mail:
  • Elfving, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; University of Oulu, Department of Biology, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland E-mail:
  • Neuvonen, University of Turku, Biodiversity Unit, Kevo Subarctic Research Institute, FI-20014 Turku, Finland E-mail:
article id 702, category Research note
Timo Kurkela, Heikki Nuorteva. (1998). Short-needle disease of Scots pine: an abnormal needle length distribution. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 702.
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; needle length; insect feeding; tissue deformation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
Short-needle syndrome occurs commonly in southern Finland. The disease is characterized by abnormal length distribution of the needles in shoots. In most cases, affected shoots have needles of normal length as well as very short needles. The short needles are those injured during the needle elongation period; the tissues formed abnormal sclerenchymatic structures and wound periderm. One possible cause could be hemipterous insects feeding on growing needles. Salivary sheaths of such insects were often present in both deformed needle bases and undeformed mature tissues.
  • Kurkela, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail: (email)
  • Nuorteva, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland E-mail:

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