Current issue: 58(3)

Under compilation: 58(4)

Scopus CiteScore 2021: 2.8
Scopus ranking of open access forestry journals: 8th
PlanS compliant
Select issue
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'pH'

Category : Article

article id 5638, category Article
Markku Tykkyläinen, Pentti Hyttinen, Ari Mononen. (1997). Theories of regional development and their relevance to the forest sector. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5638. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8540
Keywords: forest policy; forest economics; regional development; restructuring; resource community; geography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper elaborates upon various theories to explain economic development and restructuring in the forested regions of advanced countries. The concepts of communities based on the forest sector and the concept of restructuring are discussed before presenting the diversity of relevant theories. Different theoretical approaches in geography and regional and socio-economic sciences are analysed, and the paper concludes that each theory gives only a partial explanation of restructuring under certain conditions. This paper recommends that an explanatory framework should take into account – in addition to general explanatory factors – sectoral, local-specific and policy-related factors and the role of human agency in attempts to explain restructuring and development.

  • Tykkyläinen, E-mail: mt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyttinen, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Mononen, E-mail: am@mm.unknown
article id 5637, category Article
Janne Uuttera, Harri Hyppänen. (1997). Relationship between forest management planning units and spatial distribution of forest habitat components in Koli National Park. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8539
Keywords: Finland; forest management planning; forest habitat distribution; Geographic Information Systems; kriging-interpolation; Koli National park
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study examined the relationships between forest management planning units and patches formed by forest habitat components. The test area used was a part of Koli National Park in North Karelia, eastern Finland. Forest management planning units (i.e. forest compartments) were defined by using a traditional method of Finnish forestry which applies aerial photographs and compartment-wise field inventory. Patches of forest habitat components were divided according to subjective rules by using a chosen set of variables depicting the edaphic features and vegetation of a forest habitat. The spatial distribution of the habitat components was estimated with the kriging-interpolation based on systematically located sample plots. The comparisons of the two patch mosaics were made by using the standard tools of GIS. The results of the study show that forest compartment division does not correlate very strongly with the forest habitat pattern. On average, the mean patch size of the forest habitat components is greater and the number of these patches lower compared to forest compartment division. However, if the forest habitat component distribution had been considered, the number of the forest compartments would have at least doubled after intersection.

  • Uuttera, E-mail: ju@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyppänen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
article id 5627, category Article
Philippe de Reffye, Daniel Barthélémy, Frédéric Blaise, Thierry Fourcaud, François Houllier. (1997). A functional model of tree growth and tree architecture. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8529
Keywords: growth; water transport; ecophysiology; plant architecture; assimilate production; mathemetical models; computer simulations; growth simulation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A new approach for modelling plant growth using the software AMAPpara is presented. This software takes into consideration knowledge about plant architecture which has been accumulated at the Plant Modelling Unit of CIRAD for several years, and introduces physiological concepts in order to simulate the dynamic functioning of trees. The plant is considered as a serial connection of vegetative organs which conduct water from the roots to the leaves. Another simple description of the plant as a network of parallel pipes is also presented which allows an analytical formulation of growth to be written. This recurring formula is used for very simple architectures and is useful to understand the role of each organ in water transport and assimilate production. Growth simulations are presented which show the influence of modifications in architecture on plant development.

  • de Reffye, E-mail: pd@mm.unknown (email)
  • Barthélémy, E-mail: db@mm.unknown
  • Blaise, E-mail: fb@mm.unknown
  • Fourcaud, E-mail: tf@mm.unknown
  • Houllier, E-mail: fh@mm.unknown
article id 5626, category Article
Winfried Kurth, Branislav Sloboda. (1997). Growth grammars simulating trees – an extension of L-systems incorporating local variables and sensitivity. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5626. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8527
Keywords: tree growth; competition; allocation; morphology; tree architecture; L-systems; sensitivity; tree structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The rule-based formal language of "stochastic sensitive growth grammars" was designed to describe algorithmically the changing morphology of forest trees during their lifetime under the impact of endogenous and exogenous factors, and to generate 3-D simulations of tree structures in a systematic manner. The description in the form of grammars allows the precise specification of structural models with functional components. These grammars (extended L-systems) can be interpreted by the software GROGRA (Growth grammar interpreter) yielding time series of attributed 3-D structures representing plants. With some recent extensions of the growth-grammar language (sensitive functions, local variables) it is possible to model environmental control of shoot growth and some simple allocation strategies, and to obtain typical competition effects in tree stands qualitatively in the model.

  • Kurth, E-mail: wk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sloboda, E-mail: bs@mm.unknown
article id 5624, category Article
Hervé Sinoquet, Christophe Godin, Pierre Rivet. (1997). Assessment of the three-dimensional architecture of walnut trees using digitising. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 3 article id 5624. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8525
Keywords: digitising; crown structure; tree architecture; Juglans regia; topology; geometry; shoot level; shoot morphology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for the measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of trees was applied to describe two 20-year-old walnut trees, one of them is a timber tree while the other is a fruit tree. The method works at the shoot level and simultaneously describes the plant topology, the plant geometry and the shoot morphology. The method uses a 3D digitiser (3SPACE® FASTRAK®, Polhemus Inc.) associated with software DiplAmi designed for digitiser control and data acquisition management. Plant images may be reconstructed from the data set by using the ray tracing software POV-Ray. Visual comparison between photographs of the walnut trees and images synthesised from digitising was satisfactory. Distribution of basal shoot diameter, as well as leaf area and fruit distributions for both the timber and the fruit tree were non-uniformly distributed in the crown volume. Gradients were likely to be related to the light distribution within the tree. This is in agreement with previous experimental results on several tree species, and also with the predictions of tree architecture models based on light-vegetation interactions.

  • Sinoquet, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Godin, E-mail: cg@mm.unknown
  • Rivet, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5618, category Article
Marja-Leena Nykänen, Marianne Broadgate, Seppo Kellomäki, Heli Peltola, Christopher Quine. (1997). Factors affecting snow damage of trees with particular reference to European conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8519
Keywords: stem breakage; stand management; snow accumulation; topography; risk assessment; snow damage; snowfall; risk model
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Within the European Community snow damage affects an estimated 4 million m3 of timber every year, causing significant economic losses to forest owners. In Northern Europe, for example, the occurrence of snow damage has increased over the last few decades mainly due to the increase in total growing stock. The most common form of damage is stem breakage, but trees can also be bent or uprooted. Trees suffering snow damage are also more prone to consequential damage through insect or fungal attacks.

Snow accumulation on trees is strongly dependent upon weather and climatological conditions. Temperature influences the moisture content of snow and therefore the degree to which it can accumulate on branches. Wind can cause snow to be shed, but can also lead to large accumulations of wet snow, rime or freezing rain. Wet snow is most likely in late autumn or early spring. Geographic location and topography influence the occurrence of damaging forms of snow, and coastal locations and moderate to high elevations experience large accumulations. Slope plays a less important role and the evidence on the role of aspect is contradictory. The occurrence of damaging events can vary from every winter to once every 10 years or so depending upon regional climatology. In the future, assuming global warming in northern latitudes, the risk of snow damage could increase, because the relative occurrence of snowfall near temperatures of zero could increase.

The severity of snow damage is related to tree characteristics. Stem taper and crown characteristics are the most important factors controlling the stability of trees. Slightly tapering stems, asymmetric crowns, and rigid horizontal branching are all associated with high risk. However, the evidence on species differences is less clear due to the interaction with location. Management of forests can alter risk through choice of regeneration, tending, thinning and rotation. However, quantification and comparison of the absolute effect of these measures is not yet possible. An integrated risk model is required to allow the various locational and silvicultural factors to be assessed. Plans are presented to construct such a model, and gaps in knowledge are highlighted.

  • Nykänen, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Broadgate, E-mail: mb@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Peltola, E-mail: hp@mm.unknown
  • Quine, E-mail: cq@mm.unknown
article id 5617, category Article
Teijo Palander. (1997). A local DLP-GIS-LP system for geographically decentralized wood procurement planning and decision making. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5617. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8518
Keywords: Finland; GIS; linear programming; dynamic linear programming; DLP; geographical decentralization; local wood procurement; participatory planning; wood procurement
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Linear programming (LP) is an important method for allocation of wood inventory stock. It is, for instance, used alone in tactical planning systems, which currently are in wide use at the higher hierarchical level in the functionally decentralized planning of the Finnish forest industry. Unfortunately, LP as a solution method has not been capable of handling spatial data that seem to characterize planning systems in geographical decentralization. In the present study, GIS was used to assimilate data from different wood procurement functions, to calculate transportation distances and cost figures, and to write the data in ASCII files, which were then used as input for the LP model. Using the experiments and methods of GIS on a planning system developed according to participatory planning, the results of this study suggest that the participatory method was faster than the conventional LP method, when solved using actual data. The participatory method was also capable of providing the same global optimum for a wood allocation problem. The implications of these results for improving operational and tactical planning of wood procurement in Finland are discussed.

  • Palander, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8512
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; forest nursery; Betula spp.; Finland; damping-off; grey mold; root dieback; scleroderris canker; pine twisting rust; seedlings; fungal diseases; Godronia multispora; Lophodermium needle cast; snow blights; birch rust; stem lesions of birch; leaf lesions of birch; Lophodermium pinastri; Botrytis cinerea; Melampsora pinitorqua; Melampsoridium betulinum
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, E-mail: al@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kurkela, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Lilja, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
  • Rikala., E-mail: rr@mm.unknown
article id 5570, category Article
Anne Toppinen, Riitta Hänninen, Susanna Laaksonen. (1996). A dynamic forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8505
Keywords: inventory; Finland; cointegration; business cycles; pulp; price; sulphate pulp; export prices
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study investigates the relationship between Finnish sulphate pulp export prices and international pulp inventories using the Johansen cointegration method. Long-run equilibrium is found to exist between pulp price and NORSCAN inventory for the study period, 1980-94. Granger causality is found to exist from inventory to price but not vice versa. A simple short-run forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price is formed. In preliminary analysis, the explanatory power of model is found to be acceptable but only under stable market conditions.

  • Toppinen, E-mail: at@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Laaksonen, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
article id 5595, category Article
R.A. Fleming. (1996). A mechanistic perspective of possible influences of climate change on defoliating insects in North America's boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5595. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9240
Keywords: climate change; disturbance regimes; boreal forest dynamics; Abies balsamea; natural selection; North America; Choristoneura fumiferana; insect outbreaks; phenological relationships; plant quality; extreme weather; thresholds
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is no doubt that tree survival, growth, and reproduction in North America's boreal forests would be directly influenced by the projected changes in climate if they occur. The indirect effects of climate change may be of even greater importance, however, because of their potential for altering the intensity, frequency, and perhaps even the very nature of the disturbance regimes which drive boreal forest dynamics. Insect defoliator populations are one of the dominating disturbance factors in North America's boreal forests and during outbreaks trees are often killed over vast forest areas. If the predicted shifts in climate occur, the damage patterns caused by insects may be considerably changed, particularly those of insects whose temporal and spatial distributions are singularly dependent on climatic factors. The ensuing uncertainties directly affect depletion forecasts, pest hazard rating procedures, and long-term planning for pest control requirements. Because the potential for wildfire often increases in stands after insect attack, uncertainties in future insect damage patterns also lead to uncertainties in fire regimes. In addition, because the rates of processes key to biogeochemical and nutrient recycling are influenced by insect damage, potential changes in damage patterns can indirectly affect ecosystem resilience and the sustainability of the multiple uses of the forest resource.

In this paper, a mechanistic perspective is developed based on available information describing how defoliating forest insects might respond to climate warming. Because of its prevalence and long history of study, the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is used for illustrative purposes in developing this perspective. The scenarios that follow outline the potential importance of threshold behaviour, historical conditions, phenological relationships, infrequent but extreme weather, complex feedbacks, and natural selection. The urgency of such considerations is emphasized by reference to research suggesting that climate warming may already be influencing some insect lifecycles.

  • Fleming, E-mail: rf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5594, category Article
Anssi Niskanen, Tapio Rantala, Olli Saastamoinen. (1996). Economic impacts of carbon sequestration in reforestation: examples from boreal and moist tropical conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5594. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9239
Keywords: boreal forests; carbon; forestry; Finland; Philippines; profitability; tropical forests; forest plantations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The impact of carbon sequestration on the financial profitability of four tree plantation cases in Finland and the Philippines were examined. On the basis of stem wood growth; the accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, the formation and decomposition of litter, and the carbon flow in wood-based products were assessed for each reforestation case representing boreal (Finland) and moist tropical conditions (the Philippines). Using different unit values for carbon sequestration the profitability of reforestation was estimated for a fixed 100-year period on a per hectare basis. The financial profitability of reforestation increased notably when the sequestered carbon had high positive values. For example, when the value of carbon sequestration was set to be Twenty-five United States Dollar per megagram of carbon (25 USO/Mg C), the internal rate of return (IRR) of a reforestation investment with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Finland increased from 3.2% to 4.1 %. Equally, the IRR of reforestation with mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Philippines increased from 12.8% to 15.5%. The present value of carbon sequestration ranged from 39–48% and from 77–101% of the present value of the reforestation cost in Finland and the Philippines, respectively when a 25 USO/Mg C shadow price and a 5% discount rate were applied. Sequestration of one mg of carbon in reforestation in Finland and the Philippines was estimated to cost from 10.5–20.0 and from 4.0–13.6 USO, respectively.

  • Niskanen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rantala, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
  • Saastamoinen, E-mail: os@mm.unknown
article id 5590, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Ilkka Leinonen, Tapani Repo. (1996). Overwintering and productivity of Scots pine in a changing climate. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5590. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9235
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; ecosystems; frost damage; phenology; forest ecology; gap-type model; model accuracy; model realism; overvintering
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The productivity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under changing climatic conditions in the southern part of Finland was studied by scenario analysis with a gap-type forest ecosystem model. Standard simulations with the model predicted an increased rate of growth and hence increased productivity as a result of climatic warming. The gap-type model was refined by introducing an overwintering sub-model describing the annual growth cycle, frost hardiness, and frost damage of the trees. Simulations with the refined gap-type model produced results conflicting with those of the standard simulation, i.e., drastically decreased productivity caused by mortality and growth-reducing damage due to premature dehardening in the changing climate. The overwintering sub-model was tested with frost hardiness data from Scots pine saplings growing at their natural site 1) under natural conditions and 2) under elevated temperature condition, both in open-top chambers. The model predicted the frost hardiness dynamics quite accurately for the natural conditions while underestimating the frost hardiness of the saplings for the elevated temperature conditions. These findings show that 1) the overwintering sub-model requires further development, and 2) the possible reduction of productivity caused by frost damage in a changing climate is less drastic than predicted in the scenario analysis. The results as a whole demonstrated the need to consider the overwintering of trees in scenario analysis carried out with ecosystem model for boreal conditions. More generally, the results revealed a problem that exists in scenario analysis with ecological models: the accuracy of a model in predicting the ecosystem functioning under present climatic condition does not guarantee the realism of the model, nor for this reason the accuracy for predicting the ecosystem functioning under changing climatic conditions. This finding calls for the continuous rigorous experimental testing of ecological models used for assessing the ecological implications of climatic change.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Leinonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5589, category Article
Jouko Silvola, Urpo Ahlholm. (1996). Effects of CO2 concentration on the nutrition of willows (Salix phylicifolia) grown at different nutrient levels in organic-rich soil. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5589. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9234
Keywords: carbon dioxide; plant nutrition; Salix phylicifolia; nutritional status; mineralization; CO2 enrichment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Willows (Salix phylicifolia) were grown for four months in organic rich soil at four nutrient levels (fertilization with a micronutrient-macronutrient mixture of 0, 100, 500 and 1,000 kg ha-1 per month) and four CO2 concentrations (300, 500, 700 and 1,000 ppm). Nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of the willows were reduced at CO2 enhancement, the decrease being larger in the leave and roots than in the stems. Nitrogen content of the willows plus extractable nitrate-N in the soil coincided well with the doses of nitrogen supplied, but the corresponding sum of phosphorus in the plants and soil were smaller. The total nitrogen content of willows grown in unfertilized soil was nearly two times higher than the sum of the extractable nitrate-N in soil and N content of the cutting at the beginning of the experiment. The contents of nitrogen and phosphorus of the unfertilized willows were independent of CO2 concentration, suggesting that CO2 concentration did not affect through increased mineralization the availability of those nutrients to the willows.

  • Silvola, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahlholm, E-mail: ua@mm.unknown
article id 5586, category Article
Robert A. Monserud, Olga V. Denissenko, Tatyana P. Kolchugina, Nadja M. Tchebakova. (1996). Change in Siberian phytomass predicted for global warming. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5586. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9231
Keywords: climate change; Siberia; taiga; phytomass; global warming; carbon cycle; vegetation modelling; bioclimatology; vegetation zone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

An equilibrium model driven by climatic parameters, the Siberian Vegetation Model, was used to estimate changes in the phytomass of Siberian vegetation under climate change scenarios (CO2 doubling) from four general circulation models (GCM's) of the atmosphere. Ecosystems were classified using a three-dimensional climatic ordination of growing degree days (above a 5 °C threshold), Budyko's dryness index (based on radiation balance and annual precipitation), and Conrad's continentality index. Phytomass density was estimated using published data of Bazilevich covering all vegetation zones in Siberia. Under current climate, total phytomass of Siberia is estimated to be 74.1 ± 2.0 Pg (petagram = 1,015 g). Note that this estimate is based on the current forested percentage in each vegetation class compiled from forest inventory data.

Moderate warming associated with the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) and OSU (Oregon State Univ.) projections resulted in a 23–26 % increase in phytomass (to 91.3 ± 2.1 Pg and 93.6 ± 2.4 Pg, respectively), primarily due to an increase in the productive Southern Taiga and Sub-taiga classes. Greater warming associated with the GFDL (General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) and UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office) projections resulted in a small 3–7 % increase in phytomass (to 76.6 ± 1.3 Pg and 79.6 ± 1.2 Pg, respectively). A major component of predicted change using GFDL and UKMO is the introduction of a vast Temperate Forest-Steppe class covering nearly 40% of the area of Siberia, at the expense of Taiga; with current climate, this vegetation class is nearly non-existent in Siberia. In addition, Sub-boreal Forest-Steppe phytomass double with all GCM predictions. In all four climate change scenarios, the predicted phytomass stock of all colder, northern classes is reduced considerably (viz., Tundra, Fore Tundra, northern Taiga, and Middle Taiga). Phytomass in Sub-taiga increases greatly with all scenarios, from a doubling with GFDL to quadrupling with OSU and GISS. Overall, phytomass of the Taiga biome (Northern, Middle, Southern and Sub-taiga) increased 15% in the moderate OSU and GISS scenarios and decreased by a third in the warmer UKMO and GFDL projections. In addition, a sensitivity analysis found that the percentage of a vegetation class that is forested is a major factor determining phytomass distribution. From 25 to 50% more phytomass is predicted under climate change if the forested proportion corresponding to potential rather than current vegetation is assumed.

  • Monserud, E-mail: rm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Denissenko, E-mail: od@mm.unknown
  • Kolchugina, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
  • Tchebakova, E-mail: nt@mm.unknown
article id 5583, category Article
Ilkka Leinonen, Heikki Hänninen, Tapani Repo. (1996). Testing of frost hardiness models for Pinus sylvestris in natural conditions and in elevated temperature. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5583. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9228
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; climate change; frost hardiness; Scots pine; temperature; dynamic models; photoperiod; climatic warming
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Two dynamic models predicting the development of frost hardiness of Finnish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were tested with frost hardiness data obtained from trees growing in the natural conditions of Finland and from an experiment simulating the predicted climatic warming. The input variables were temperature in the first model, and temperature and night length in the second. The model parameters were fixed on the basis of previous independent studies. The results suggested that the model which included temperature and photoperiod as input variables was more accurate than the model using temperature as the only input variable to predict the development of frost hardiness in different environmental conditions. Further requirements for developing the frost hardiness models are discussed.

  • Leinonen, E-mail: il@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown
  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5582, category Article
Jonathan J. Ruel, Matthew P. Ayres. (1996). Variation in temperature responses among populations of Betula papyrifera. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5582. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9227
Keywords: Betula papyrifera; adaptation; photosynthesis; growth; temperature; climate warming; elevation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

How will global warming affect southern populations of boreal trees? In paper birch, Betula papyrifera (Betulaceae), alpine trees with an evolutionary history of relatively cool summers may be more sensitive to climate warming than valley populations. We evaluated this scenario by growing seedlings from different populations in four temperature treatments (mountain field site, valley field site, and two greenhouse rooms).

Populations from low elevations germinated earlier and had higher germination success than population from high elevations (16.8 vs. 22.0 d; 72% vs. 11%). At the valley site, seedlings from native populations grew faster than seedlings from higher elevations (mean ± SE = 0.25 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 mm · cm-1 · d-1) while at the mountain site, all seedlings grew at similar rates. Seedling grown in cooler environments had higher root : shoot ratios, perhaps to compensate for temperature limitations in nutrient uptake by roots. Leaf area varied among populations but was not affected by environmental differences across the field sites. Net photosynthetic rates at valley temperatures were higher for seedlings grown in the valley than for seedling grown in the mountains or the warm greenhouse (12.0 vs. 10.3 and 5.8 μmoles · m-2 · s-1), perhaps due to adaptive phenotypic adjustments. Climatic warming could rapidly produce important phenotypic changes in birch trees (e.g. decreased root : shoot ratio, reduced growth in alpine populations). On a longer time-scale, warming could also result in genetic changes as natural selection favours valley genotypes in alpine sites where they are presently rare.

  • Ruel, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ayres, E-mail: ma@mm.unknown
article id 5581, category Article
Oddvar Skre, Knut Nes. (1996). Combined effects of elevated winter temperatures and CO2 on Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9226
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; photosynthesis; provenance; growth; Norway; N fertilization; carbon dioxide; winter temperatures
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A total of 1,800 3-year old seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) from two Norwegian and one German provenance were treated with two different nitrogen levels during the 1992 growth season. The plants were kept during the following winter at two different temperature levels. In the spring of 1993, the nutrient application was resumed, and the plants were divided between three different treatments, 350 and 650 p.p.m. in open top chamber and a control plot outside the chambers. This treatment was repeated also during the following 1994 growth season.

The growth and primary production were studied by photosynthesis experiments and by non-destructive growth measurements. The result indicate that raised winter temperature may lead to increased needle loss and reduced growth the following season, particularly in northern provenances. Carbon dioxide significantly influenced growth in addition to nutrient level and winter temperature. High CO2 also seemed to cause increased photosynthesis at early season, and earlier budbreak and growth cessation than in control plants.

  • Skre, E-mail: os@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nes, E-mail: kn@mm.unknown
article id 5561, category Article
Jari Liski. (1995). Variation in soil organic carbon and thickness of soil horizons within a boreal forest stand – effect of trees and implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 4 article id 5561. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9212
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; soil carbon; spatial variation; soil formation; soil morphology; tree effects; soil sampling; geostatics
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Spatial variation in the density of soil organic carbon (kg/m2) and the thickness of soil horizons (F/H, E) were investigated in a 6 m x 8 m area in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland for designing an effective sampling for the C density and studying the effect of trees on the variation. The horizon thickness of the podzolized soil were measured on a total of 126 soil cores (50 cm deep) and the C density of the organic F/H and 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm mineral soil layers was analysed.

The C density varied 3–5 fold within the layers and the coefficients of variation ranged from 22 % to 40%. Considering the gain in confidence per sample, 8–10 samples were suggested for estimating the mean C density in the F/H and 0–40 cm layers, although about 30 samples are needed for 10% confidence in the mean. The C densities and horizon thicknesses were spatially dependent within the distances of 1–8 m, the spatial dependence accounting for 43–86% of the total variance. The F/H layer was thicker and contained more C within 1–3 m radius from trees. In the 10–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers (B horizon) the C density also increased towards the trees, but more pronouncedly in the immediate vicinity of the stems. Because the spatial patterning of the E horizon thickness was similar, the increase was attributed to stemflow and precipitation of organic compounds in the podzol B horizon.

  • Liski, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5551, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen, Pekka Rossi, Anna Saarsalmi. (1995). Biomass production and nutrient uptake of short-rotation plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 5551. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9202
Keywords: Betula pendula; biomass production; Betula pubescens; Alnus incana; short-rotation forestry; Salix phylicifolia; Salix x dasyclados; Salix 'Aquatica'; nutrient uptake; Salix triandra
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The biomass production and nutrient uptake of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Erhr.), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), native willows Salix triandra L. and S. phylicifolia L. and exotic willows S. x dasyclados and S. ’Aquatica’ growing on a clay mineral soil field (Sukeva) and on two cut-away peatland areas (Piipsanneva, Valkeasuo) were investigated.

Biomass production of downy birch was greater than that of silver birch, and the biomass production of the native willows greater than that of the exotic ones. The performance of S. phylicifolia was the best of the studied willow species. Exotic willows were susceptible to frost damage and their winter hardiness was poor. The production of all species was lower on the clay mineral soil field than on the cut-away peatland areas. Fertilization of birches and alder – on the double dose given to the willows – increased biomass production. After 6 growing seasons the leafless biomass production of fertilized silver birch at Piipsanneca was 21 t ha-1 (at Valkeasuo 34 t ha-1) and of grey alder 24 t ha-1, and that of S. triandra after five growing seasons 31 t ha-1, S. phylicifolia 38 t ha-1 and of S. x dasyclados 16 t ha-1.

6-year-old stands of silver birch bound more nutrients per unit biomass than downy birch stands. Grey alder bound more N, Ca and Co but less Mn and Zn per unit biomass than silver and downy birch. On the field more P was bound in grey alder per unit biomass compared to downy birch. The willows had more K per unit biomass than the other tree species, and the exotic willow species more N than the native ones. Less N, K and Mg were bound per unit biomass of S. phylicifolia compared to the other tree species.

  • Hytönen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Rossi, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
  • Saarsalmi, E-mail: as@mm.unknown
article id 5545, category Article
Jouni Siipilehto, Olavi Lyly. (1995). Weed control trials with fibre mulch, glyphosate and terbuthylazine in Scots pine plantations. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5545. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9196
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; herbicides; glyphosate; terbuthylazine; weed control; seedling stands; mulches
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The following treatments were compared in three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) reforestation areas on a scarified moist mineral-soil site in southern Finland, planted with 1+1 bareroot stock in spring 1987: (a) no weed control treatment; (b) mulching with a fibre slurry produced by mixing wastepaper with water and applied 1 cm deep to an area of 60 cm in diameter around the seedling soon after planting; (c) glyphosate (at 2 kg ha-1) sprayed on a 1 m2 spot around the seedling in early August 1987; (d) terbuthylazine (at 10 kg ha-1) applied as (c). Monitoring of the trials over a 4-year period between 1987–90 showed that none of the treatments reduced surface vegetation to an extent that would have benefited pine. The percentage cover development of the vegetation, dominated by Agrostis capillaris, Calamagrostis arundinaceae, Deschampsia flexuosa, Festuca ovina, Epilobioum angustifolium and Pteridium aquillinum, followed much the same pattern in all treatments, with (c) slightly favouring forbs. Survival of pine at the end of the study period was about 90%, with non-significant differences between treatments. Mulching and terbuthylazine treatment slightly reduced seedling height growth in the second year. Growth was better in glyphosate treatment than in terbuthylazine treatment in the lowest (<30%) and the highest (>60%) pre-treatment weed cover classes, and in the latter also better than in untreated control. Mulching gave variable results; at its best it provided also good control of weeds for several years, without, however, improving the initial development of pine in these trials.

  • Siipilehto, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Lyly, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown
article id 5534, category Article
Hyun Kang, Inger Ekberg, Gösta Eriksson, Johan Ununger. (1994). Second and third growth period responses of Picea abies families to first growth period photoperiodic, light intensity and temperature treatments. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5534. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9174
Keywords: Picea abies; growth; maturation; temperature; seedlings; photoperiod; environmental effects; genetic effects; juvenility
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. full-sib families of contrasting origins were cultivated in a phytotron under different photoperiodic, light-intensity and temperature treatments during their first growth period. The effects of the treatments on juvenile growth traits – whether enhanced or delayed maturation was induces – were observed during the two subsequent growth periods. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) Enhanced maturation can be induced in the first growth period from sowing with (i) a long period of continuous light during active growth (24 weeks vs. 8 weeks); (ii) a shorter night during bud maturation (12 h vs. 16 h); high temperature (25°C vs. 20°C) during (iii) active growth, growth cessation and bud maturation; and during (iv) the latter part of growth cessation and bud maturation only. (B) Delayed maturation can be induced after (i) low light intensity during growth cessation and bud maturation (114 μmol m-2 s-1 vs. 340 μmol m-2 s-1); low temperature (15°C vs. 20°C) during (ii) active growth, growth cessation and bud maturation; and during (iii) the latter part of growth cessation and bud maturation only.

The most dramatic effect was observed after 24 weeks of continuous light during active growth. All traits showed a significantly more mature performance in the second growth period compared with the control. The effect for all but one trait was carried over to the third growth period. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that the activity of apical shoot meristems controls the maturation process. For the other treatments there was only weak or no support for the hypothesis of induction of enhanced or delayed maturation. Strong family effects were observed for all traits. Differential responses of the various latitudinal families were observed, suggesting that family effects must be considered to predict and interpret correctly how plants will respond to environmental effects.

  • Kang, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ekberg, E-mail: ie@mm.unknown
  • Eriksson, E-mail: ge@mm.unknown
  • Ununger, E-mail: ju@mm.unknown
article id 5532, category Article
Anu Honkanen. (1994). Selection of Salix myrsinifolia clones for biomass forestry in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5532. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9172
Keywords: biomass; selection; diameter distribution; short rotation forestry; fuelwood; production; clones; Salix phylicifolia; Salix myrsinifolia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

For biomass forestry in the inland parts of Southern and Central Finland, the obvious choice of willow species is Salix myrsinifolia. However, selection of clones of indigenous species has not yet been completed and more research and selection is needed. In the Piipsanneva old peatland trial, indigenous species of willow, mostly clones of S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, were compared in terms of biomass production, coppicing, height growth and diameter distributions. In this trial, the mean annual biomass production was not particularly high; more important results were attained in the ranking of clones. The trial strengthens the hypothesis that, over the long-term, the biomass production of S. myrsinifolia is higher than that of S. phylicifolia. It was supposed that behind the highest yield there was a clone with uniform quality, one whose diameter distribution would be narrow and positively skewed. Comparisons of parameters of Weibull functions showed that the distributions of the best clones were wide, indicating that those clones use the whole growth space better than those with narrow distribution.

  • Honkanen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5529, category Article
Jukka Lippu. (1994). Patterns of dry matter partitioning and 14C-photosynthate allocation in 1.5-year-old Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 3 article id 5529. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9169
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; carbon; photosynthesis; root growth; allocation; shoot growth; 14C-incorporation; dry matter partitioning
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Change in dry matter partitioning, 14C-incorporation, and sink 14C-activity of 1.5-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in growth chamber conditions were studied during a 91-day experiment. On five sampling dates, seedlings were labelled with 14CO2 and whole-plant allocation patterns were determined. Intensively growing shoots modified the dry matter partitioning: during shoot growth the proportion of roots decreased but after that it increased. Based on their large proportion of dry matter, the needles (excluding current needles) were the strongest sink of carbon containing 40% of the incorporated 14C. Despite their small initial sink size, the elongating shoots (current main shoot + current branch) and their needles were the second strongest sink (30–40% of the total 14C) which reflects their high physiological activity. The proportion of 14C in the current year’s main shoot increased during shoot growth but decreased as the growth began to decline after 70 days. 10–20% of the total assimilated 14C was translocated to the roots. Laterals above 2nd order were the strongest sink in the root system, containing twice as much 14C as the other roots together. Alternation between shoot and root growth can be seen clearly: carbon allocation to roots was relatively high before and after the period of intensive shoot growth. Changes in root sink strength resulted primarily from changes in root sink activity rather than sink size.

  • Lippu, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5528, category Article
Pekka Tamminen, Michael Starr. (1994). Bulk density of forested mineral soils. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5528. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9162
Keywords: regression analysis; bulk density; soil physical properties; organic matter
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Relationships between bulk density and organic matter (OM) content, textural properties and depth are described for forested mineral soils from Central and Northern Finland. Core samples were taken of 0–5, 30–35 and 60–65 cm layers at 75 plots. Three measures of bulk density were calculated: the bulk density of the < 20 mm fraction (BD20), the bulk density of the < 2 mm fraction (BD2), and laboratory bulk density (BDl). BDl was determined from the mass of a fixed volume of < 2 mm soil taken in the laboratory. All three measures of bulk densities were strongly correlated with organic matter content (r ≥ -0.63). Depth and gravel (2–20 mm) content (in the case of BD2) were also important variables. BDl was sensitive to clay contents > 7% but did significantly improve the prediction of both BD2 and BD20 in coarse soils (clay contents ≤ 7%). Predictive models were derived for coarse soils.

  • Tamminen, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Starr, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5526, category Article
Pertti. Hari, Pasi Aalto, Kaarle Hämeri, Markku. Kulmala, Tapani. Lahti, Sari. Luoma, Lauri Palva, Toivo Pohja, Erkki. Pulliainen, Erkki. Siivola, Timo Vesala. (1994). Air pollution in eastern Lapland : challenge for an environmental measurement station. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 1 article id 5526. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9160
Keywords: photosynthesis; automation; carbon dioxide; ozone; measurement systems; aerosols; sulphur dioxid; weather
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Värriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurement started in August 1992. The system has been working quite reliably, with good accuracy. The preliminary results show that pollution episodes are observed when the wind direction is from Monchegorsk or Nikel, the main emission sources in Kola Peninsula.

  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Aalto, E-mail: pa@mm.unknown
  • Hämeri, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown
  • Kulmala, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Lahti, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Luoma, E-mail: sl@mm.unknown
  • Palva, E-mail: lp@mm.unknown
  • Pohja, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
  • Pulliainen, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown
  • Siivola, E-mail: es@mm.unknown
  • Vesala, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5513, category Article
Tapani Pöykkö, Pirkko Velling. (1993). Inheritance of the narrow-crowned Scots pine E 1101, "Kanerva pine". Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5513. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15674
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; crown form; ideotypes; phenotypes; monogenic inheritance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

There is some evidence to support the hypothesis that crown form of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) can be inherited either mono- or polygenically. In Finland, a narrow, horizontal whorl-layer structure is striking in about one half of the offspring of a genotype E 1101, ”Kanerva pine”. The offspring are characterized by a narrow crown, short and thin branches at an angle of 90° to the stem, minimal tapering and by numerous long, lateral shoots, long needles and the common occurrence of three-needled fascicles among the dwarf shoots. These features are connected to a high growth rate, a high harvest index and to tortuosity of the stem. It is suggested that this complex of characters is determined by a single dominant gene.

In this study, several offspring of the E 1101 were classified into three form types in seven sets of progeny test data, including progenies of various ages having E 1101 as either maternal or paternal parent as well as open pollinated progenies of second-generation offspring. A segregation close to 1:1 was found both in the first and in the second-generation progenies when wilds and intermediates were combined and compared with Kanervas. The result indicates that the three types of Kanerva form can be due to a single dominant allele (K). Kanervas are heterozygous (Kk) for the allele and wilds are recessive homozygotes (kk) resulting 1:1 segregation in their progenies. However, there were also remarkable deviations from the expected distribution. The differences as well as the inheritance pattern are discussed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pöykkö, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown
article id 5503, category Article
Juha Heiskanen. (1993). Variation in water retention characteristics of peat growth media used in tree nurseries. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 5503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15664
Keywords: density; production; water retention; container grown plants; porosity; growth media; substrates; planting stock; hydraulic conductivity; Sphagnum peat media; physical properties
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The water retention characteristics and their variation in tree nurseries and related physical properties were determined for commercially produced growth media made of light slightly humified Sphagnum peat. A total of 100 samples of peat media were collected from filled seedling trays in the greenhouses of four Finnish nurseries in 1990. In addition, the physical properties were determined for two growth media made of compressed peat sheets and chips. The variation in water retention characteristics in nurseries was described using linear models with fixed and random effects. The sources of variation in the mixed linear models were producer, grade, batch (greenhouse) and sample (tray).

The water retention of the peat media at different matric potentials was comparable to that given in the literature. The media shrank an average of 0–16% during desorption. The peat grades were finer than the Nordic quality standards for peat growth media. Particles < 1 mm increased and particles 1–5 mm decreased the water retention characteristics measured. The greatest total variation in water retention was at -1 kPa. The water retention of the peat media differed least at -5 and -10 kPa. The water retention characteristics of media from different producers usually differed significantly. The grades, on the other hand, did not differ from each other in their water retention characteristics nor were there significant interactions between producer and grade. The batch effect was marked but was lower than the effect within batches, where the sample (tray) effect was greater than the effect due to random measurement error. At -10 kPa, the measurement error was, however, clearly greater than the sample effect. The random measurement error was comparable to the batch effect. Aeration of the growth media is dependent on the water content retained between saturation and -1 kPa. The water availability to seedlings at the nursery phase is affected mainly by water retention between -1 and -10 kPa.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heiskanen, E-mail: jh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5481, category Article
Pekka Nygren, Pertti Hari. (1992). Effect of foliar application with acid mist on the photosynthesis of potassium-deficient Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5481. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15642
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; nutrient deficiency; seedlings; acid deposition; potassium concentration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The interactive effects of potassium deficit and foliar application with acid water (pH 5.5, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.0 given consecutively) on CO2 exchange rate of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings was investigated in field conditions. No reduction of the CO2 exchange rate was observed in the seedlings supplied with sufficient potassium. Only the seedlings having the lowest needle K concentration (2.4 mgg-1) had an apparently low CO2 exchange rate before the applications with acid water. The CO2 exchange rate of most of the seedlings with low needle K concentration (3.9–6.0 mgg-1) decreased after the acid water application. The threshold acidity for the reduction varied between pH 4,0 and 3.0 depending on the needle K concentration. The reduction was more apparent at high irradiance. It was concluded that acid precipitation disturbs the CO2 exchange only in conditions of mineral nutrient deficit.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nygren, E-mail: pn@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
article id 5471, category Article
Hannu Fritze. (1992). Effects of environmental pollution on forest soil microflora - a review. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 5471. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15632
Keywords: soil respiration; forest soil; litter decomposition; acidification; lime; heavy metals; pollution; microflora; fungal hyphae
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The article is a literature review focusing on the reaction of soil respiration, litter decomposition and microflora of forest soils to various pollutants like acidic deposition, heavy metals and unusual high amounts of basic cations. There is a great deal of evidence indicating that environmental pollution affects soil microbial activity and community structure. Much of the data originates from experimental designs where high levels of pollutants were applied to the soil under field or laboratory conditions. Furthermore, many were short-term experiments designed to look for large effects. These experiments have an indicative value, but it has to be kept in mind that environmental pollution is a combination of many pollutants, mostly at low concentrations, acting over long periods of time. There is therefore consequently a demand for research performed in natural forest environments polluted with anthropogenic compounds. 

  • Fritze, E-mail: hf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5465, category Article
Gösta Eriksson. (1991). Challenges for forest geneticists. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5465. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15623
Keywords: tree breeding; dormancy; forest research; phenotypic plasticity; mixed populations; hardiness; change of environment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Studies of phenotypic as well as mixed population plasticities are urgently needed in a world that supposedly experiences a gradual change of its environment. It is important to understand that man creates his environment and silviculture. This is one of the reasons why for breeding it cannot be expected to find optimal phenotypes in nature. Other reasons are the phylogenetic constraints and migration of pollen and seeds.

Forest genetics up to now is characterized by the study of one trait at a time. There is an urgent need for simultaneous analysis of several traits by the aid of genetic correlations or multivariate analysis. Generally there is a need for inclusion of larger numbers of genetic entries in forest genetic investigations.

For the long-rotation-time species there is a need to determine the curves for degree of dormancy and hardiness during the annual cycle. Information of plasticity in two-dimensional environments like water availability and temperature is needed. Studies on nutrient utilization and acquisition will tell us whether or not we must have different breeding populations for different soil fertilities. An understanding of the phase changes between juvenile and adult opens up possible applications such as faster generation turn-over in the breeding population via early flowering and early testing as well as better plants for frost-prone and weedy sites.

  • Eriksson, E-mail: ge@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5464, category Article
Donald I. Dickmann. (1991). Role of physiology in forest tree improvement. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5464. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15622
Keywords: flowering; tree breeding; selection criteria; plant physiology; biotechnology; tree improvement; adaptability; ideotypes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper introduces different ways plant physiology research can avail the process of tree improvement. The breeding of tree cultivars that efficiently produce a particular wood product or amenity will be an important aspect of forest management. What physiologist can provide to breeders and genetic engineers is the opportunity to move their work from empirical level towards a more theoretical level, and help to make breeding more predictable and more precise in its objectives. The areas of research discussed in the paper are biotechnology, flowering, selection criteria, adaptability and application of ideotypes.

  • Dickmann, E-mail: dd@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5461, category Article
Run-Peng Wei, Dag Lindgren. (1991). Selection effects on diversity and genetic gain. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5461. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15619
Keywords: tree breeding; phenotypic selection; truncation selection; combined index; in-breeding
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Four different methods of truncation selection were studied in a population consisting of a large number of unrelated full sib families of equal size: phenotype selection, family selection, within-family selection and combined index selection (optimal weighting of individual and family performance to get the best prediction of breeding value). Methods were developed for calculating diversity (”relative effective family number”) for the different selection methods. Numerical calculations were made for genetic gain and diversity. Model assumptions are additive gene control and normal distribution. Phenotypic was good at high heritabilities and between family at low heritabilities. Loss of diversity was strongly dependent on selection method and selection strength. Compared at the same diversity, genetic gain was lower for combined index compared to phenotypic. There is a need for methods combining the goals gain and diversity.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Wei, E-mail: rw@mm.unknown (email)
  • Lindgren, E-mail: dl@mm.unknown
article id 5447, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen. (1991). Pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, found in packing case wood. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5447. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15601
Keywords: sawn wood; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; pinewood nematode; packing wood; imported wooden packaging
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Living third dispersal stage juveniles of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, were found infesting pine boards in Finland. The boards had been used as building material in a packing case to hold imported machinery. Total numbers of nematodes extracted from the boards did not exceed 4 grams of dry wood. When cultured on Botrytis cinerea the nematode reproduction resumed rapidly.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5443, category Article
Raimo Silvennoinen, Rauno Hämäläinen, Kaarlo Nygrén, Kim von Weissenberg. (1991). Spectroradiometric characteristics of Scots pine and intensity of moose browsing. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5443. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15597
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; Alces alces; aerial photography; moose; spectral analysis; reflectance; multispectral photography; browsing
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The light reflected from the crowns of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones was measured spectroradiometrically during and after growing season. Standard deviations of the spectra of pine clones showing differences in moose browsing intensity were compared. A new algorithm was developed for predicting the browsing intensity of moose (Alces alces).

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Silvennoinen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hämäläinen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Nygrén, E-mail: kn@mm.unknown
  • Weissenberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown
article id 5432, category Article
Risto Rikala, Helen J. Jozefek. (1990). Effect of dolomite lime and wood ash on peat substrate and development of tree seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 4 article id 5432. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15586
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Betula pendula; Picea abies; germination; height; nutrients; pH; dry weight; electrical conductivity; Sphagnum peat
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Effect of dolomite lime and wood ash (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 kg m-3) on the chemical composition of low humified Sphagnum peat was studied. Germination of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and the subsequent growth of these seedlings were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Nutrient concentrations in shoots and roots of pine seedlings were also analysed. The pH of peat increased asymptotically from 3.8 to about 7.0 with increasing lime regimen and to about 8.0 with increasing ash regimen. Wood ash linearly increased electrical conductivity and P, K, and Ca concentrations of peat. Rate of germination, within 7 days, of pine and spruce was best at low pH (<5) while birch seeds had a slightly higher pH optimum (4–6). Germination capacity, within 21 days, was not affected by pH or application regimen of either lime or ash. Pine and spruce seedlings grew best with lime and ash doses of 0.5–2.0 kg m-3, the pH of peat being 4–5. Lime and ash treatments did not affect the growth of birch seedlings, but wood ash increased nutrient concentration of pine seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rikala, E-mail: rr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jozefek, E-mail: hj@mm.unknown
article id 5430, category Article
Winai Sirikul, Markku Kanninen. (1990). Shoot growth and its clonal variation in Pinus kesiya. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5430. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15584
Keywords: phenology; clonal variation; shoot growth; Pinus kesiya; Thailand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Shoot elongation of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon was studied using 2-year old grafts in a clonal seed orchard of the Pine Improvement Centre, located at the Huey Bong Experimental Station near Chiangmai, Thailand (19° 17’ N, 99° 15’ E, 900 m a.s.l.).

The seed orchard had a completely randomized block design with 30 blocks and 80 single-tree plots (clones) in each block. Eleven clones in four blocks were selected out of the total of 80 grafts (clones). From each graft, three lateral branches at the height of 1.6 m from the ground level were selected. Thus, total of 109 branches were measured. Shoot length of branches was measured between July 3, 1983 and March 11, 1984 at approximately bi-weekly intervals. Method of classical growth analysis were used in describing the shoot growth.

The annual shoot growth pattern of P. kesiya exhibited two consecutive sigmoid growth curves, i.e. it consisted of two flushes of shoot elongation, both formed by free growth. Thus, the pattern of shoot growth resembled the caribaea pattern. However, the annual shoot was composed of summer and winter shoots. These could be distinguished from each other by the reproductive organs, which always occur on winter shoot. The shoot contributed 61% of the total annual shoot length.

There were significant differences in the pattern of shoot elongation between the studied clones, which may reflect differences in the adaptation to different environmental conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Sirikul, E-mail: ws@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5428, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen. (1990). Presence of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) fourth dispersal stages in selected conifer beetles in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 3 article id 5428. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15582
Keywords: Coleoptera; Bursaphelenchus mucronatus; nematodes; Monochamus galloprovincialis; Monochamus sutor; vectors; conifer beetles
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Four dispersal stages of the nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) were surveyed in Finland during the summers 1989 and 1990 examining field collected conifer beetle (Coleopterea) adults of the following species: Monochamus sutor, M. galloprovincialis, Acanthocinus aedilis, Rhagium inquisitor, Asemum striatum, Spondylis buprestoides and Hylobius abietis. All but the last one (Curculionidae) belong to genus Cerambycidae. The two Monochamus species were the only ones carrying B. mucronatus fourth dispersal stages, total number of nematode larvae per beetle being higher in M. galloprovincialis. The frequency of infestation was 24% in M. galloprovincialis and 14% in M. sutor but the difference eas not statistically significant.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5420, category Article
Toyohiro Miyazava, Jukka Laine. (1990). Effect of macroclimate on the development of Scots pine seedling stands on drained oligotrophic pine mires. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5420. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15574
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; regeneration; drained peatlands; plantations; ditch spacing; effective temperature sum; microtopography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The influence of different fertilization treatments and ditch spacings on the height growth of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedling stands growing under various climatic regimes were determined. Comparisons were made between naturally regenerated and planted seedling stands. The effective temperature sum had a stronger effect on the height growth of planted seedlings, and in Northern Finland the planted seedlings seemed to be influenced to a greater degree by the adverse climatic conditions. The heavier the dose of fertilizer that had been applied, the greater the difference in growth caused by macroclimate. A considerably larger proportion of natural seedlings were located on hummocks compared with that of planted seedlings, irrespective of the region. On plots with wider ditch spacings, seedlings growing on hummocks were superior in height growth to those on flat surfaces.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Miyazava, E-mail: tm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Laine, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5416, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1990). Metsämaan fysikaaliset ja fysikaalis-kemialliset ominaisuudet CT-OMaT kasvupaikkasarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5416. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15568
English title: Soil physical and physio-chemical properties of Finnish upland forest sites.
Original keywords: kasvupaikkatyyppi; ravinteisuus; kationinvaihtokapasiteetti; podzoli
English keywords: pH; fertility; site factors; podzols; porosity; CEC
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In soil profiles from a series of uplands of different site types bulk density, density of solids and porosity of soil were clearly related to soil organic matter content and its distribution in the soil profile. Soil organic matter contents were also strongly correlated to effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil acidity. Site fertility was primarily related to the fine fraction (ø<0.06 mm) content in the C horizon and related properties (i.e. CEC). In the humus layer, the content of exchangeable bases and base saturation most strongly related to site fertility.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5415, category Article
Kim von Weissenberg. (1990). Host-parasite relationships in forest ecosystems: A review. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5415. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15567
Keywords: Pinus; resistance; Ophiostoma; rust diseases; Cronartium; Cryphonectria; Melampsora; polygenic; oligogenic; gene-for-gene
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Based on a survey of world literature it is concluded that 1) the better -researched epidemic forest pathosystems are caused by anthropogenic factors, 2) the systems most likely have a polygenic background, and 3) resistance breeding should maintain polygenic resistance with restrictive incorporation of oligogenic resistance. Corresponding objectives are valid in breeding programs of presently balanced pathosystems, which may turn epidemic if man causes changes in the gene pool and alters critical environmental conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Weissenberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5414, category Article
Heikki Smolander, Seppo Kellomäki, Pauline Oker-Blom. (1990). Typpipitoisuuden vaikutus männyn neulasten fotosynteesiin ja verson itsevarjostukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5414. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15566
English title: The effect of nitrogen concentration on needle photosynthesis and within shoot shading in Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; ravinteisuus; fotosynteesi; kasvupaikkatekijät; verson rakenne; säteilyn sitomistehokkuus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; shading; fertility; site factors; shoot structure; light interception efficiency
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A close relationship between photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen concentration of leaves is known to exist. In conifers, nitrogen also affects the pattern of mutual shading within a shoot, which is a basic unit used in studying photosynthesis of coniferous trees. These effects of needle nitrogen concentration on photosynthetic capacity and mutual shading of needles were analysed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots taken from five young stands growing on sites of different fertility. The effect of nitrogen concentration on needle photosynthesis was studied based on measurements of the photosynthetic radiation response of shoots from which two thirds of the needles were removed in order to eliminate the effect of within shading.

An increase of one percentage unit in nitrogen concentration of needles increased the photosynthetic capacity of needles by 25 mg CO2 dm-2h-1. The effect of nitrogen on within-shoot shading was quantified in terms of the silhouette area to total needle area ratio of a shoot (STAR), which determines the relative interception rate per unit of needle area on the shoot. Although nitrogen promoted needle growth, an increase in nitrogen concentration decreased the within-shoot shading. This effect resulted from a decrease in needle density on the shoot and an increased needle angle with increasing nitrogen content.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Oker-Blom, E-mail: po@mm.unknown
article id 5409, category Article
Jukka Lippu, Pasi Puttonen. (1990). Istutustaimen juuriston alkukehitys kasvupaikalla. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5409. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15561
English title: The early development of seedling roots at the planting site: A literature review.
Original keywords: menetelmät; maan kosteus; maan lämpötila; juuriston kehitys; fotosynteesituote; fysiologinen sopeutuminen; istutustaimet
English keywords: planting; soil temperature; root growth; soil moisture; photosynthates; acclimatization; methodology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The structure and functional responses of roots in planted seedlings when acclimatizing at the planting site are reviewed. A wide range of methods for classifying roots has been employed, and the terminology used is not uniform. Roots can be classified by their morphology, origin, and function. The temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature, moisture, structure, and concentration of nutrients are among the most important properties to which root systems acclimatize. In order to reliably describe the function of the root system, several parameters usually have to be measured. Studies on the root-soil interface have indicated that roots are not necessarily in continuous contact with soil. The control mechanism of root growth is inadequately known and theoretically formulated. Generally, only the mass needed for water and nutrient uptake has been allocated to the roots. However, the amount of photosynthates allocated to the roots is high. Acclimatization of seedlings out at the planting site is a complicated process which is influenced by the growing conditions at both the nursery and at the site. The function, distribution and structure of roots are controlled by the environment in a way similar to the shoot, but the control mechanism is imperfectly known.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Lippu, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
article id 5405, category Article
Pertti Hari, Eeva Korpilahti, Toivo Pohja, Pentti K. Räsänen. (1990). A field system for measuring the gas exchange of forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 1 article id 5405. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15557
Keywords: photosynthesis; CO2; monitoring; measuring methods; transpiration; environment; gas exchange; respiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A third generation of forest tree gas exchange measuring system design for the use in the field is described. The system is designed to produce data for determining the dependence of the rate of tree photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration on environmental factors. The system consists of eight cuvettes, a tubing system, two infrared gas analysers, an air flow controller, a data logger, and a computer. The measuring cuvette is a clap type, i.e. it is mostly open, only closing during measurement. CO2 exchange is measured as the change in the cuvette concentration of CO2, and, transpiration is measured as the increase in water vapour concentration while the cuvette is closed. The environmental factors measured are temperature, irradiance and air pressure. The system was planned in 1987 and constructed in 1988. It worked reliably in late summer 1988 and the quality of data seems to be satisfactory. 

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Korpilahti, E-mail: eeva.korpilahti@luke.fi
  • Pohja, E-mail: tp@mm.unknown
  • Räsänen, E-mail: pr@mm.unknown
article id 5389, category Article
Jyrki Tomminen, Matti Nuorteva, Markku Pulkkinen, Jouni Väkevä. (1989). Occurrence of the nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 5389. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15547
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; Finland; wood; Bursaphelenchua xylophilus; Bursaphelenchus mucronatus; nematodes; Monochamus galloprovincialis; Monochamus sutor
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A survey was conducted in Finland in 1988 to determine whether the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus Mamiya & Enda 1979 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) or the closely related species B. mucronatus would occur in Finnish forests. Dead or dying standing trees and timber of two conicer species, Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (Norway spruce) were analysed for the presence of these nematodes. Monochamus spp. pine sawyers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were also collected and inspected for the presence of dispersal fourth juvenile stages (dauerlarva) of the nematodes. The species B. xylophilus was not found, but B. mucronatus appeared to be widespread in the country. Individuals of this nematode were found both from Scots pine and Norway spruce. Adults of two Monochamus species were found, M. galloprovincialis and M. sutor. Only two of the examined beetles of the former species had dauerlarvae in their body.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tomminen, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
  • Pulkkinen, E-mail: mp@mm.unknown
  • Väkevä, E-mail: jv@mm.unknown
article id 5385, category Article
Timo Kuuluvainen. (1989). Branching dynamics in young Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 5385. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15542
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass production; branching; tree architecture; bifuraction; modular construction; shoot demography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of shoot number and shoot properties was examined in successive shoot cohorts of young widely-spaced Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in a progeny trial. This was accomplished by reconstructing the branching process of the trees over a period of five years, from tree age 4 to 8. During this time the number of shoots in successive shoot cohorts increased rapidly, while at the same time the mean shoot length decreased. The decrease in shoot lengths from older to younger shoots was accompanied by a decline in the bifuraction frequency of the shoots. In general, rapid changes occurred in the branching characteristics during the yearly development of the trees. The variation in the branching characteristics was reflected in the development of the architecture and biomass production of the trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kuuluvainen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5377, category Article
Maija Jarva, Arja Tervahauta. (1989). Neulasten rikkianalyysi. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5377. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15534
English title: A comparison of sulphur analysis of conifer needle samples.
Original keywords: menetelmät; neulaset; neulasanalyysi; rikki; menetelmien vertailu
English keywords: needles; methods; sulphur; method comparison
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The results of an intercalibration of sulphur analysis by 24 laboratories are evaluated. The analysis was made by one or more of six methods. The following three methods were found to be satisfactory as regards relative speed and reliability: Leco S analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and vacuum ICO emission spectroscopy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Jarva, E-mail: mj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tervahauta, E-mail: at@mm.unknown
article id 5368, category Article
Kari Heliövaara, Rauno Väisänen. (1989). Invertebrates of young Scots pine stands near the industrial town of Harjavalta, Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 1 article id 5368. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15527
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Finland; Harjavalta; mites; air pollution; invertebrates; aphids; Arthropoda
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Invertebrates of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands were preliminarily studied along a gradient of industrial air pollutants in Harjavalta, south-western Finland. Bark samples and net samples on pine branches and needles were taken in May–June, 1987. The number of aphids on needles was highest near the industrial plants. The number of mites in bark was positively correlated with the increasing distance from the pollutant source. Detrended correspondence analysis ordination calculated according to the bark invertebrates showed that the sampling sites of the zones far from the emission source formed a distinct group while those of the zones near the source were relatively widely dispersed indicating disturbances in faunal structure.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heliövaara, E-mail: kh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Väisänen, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5355, category Article
Halvor Rostad. (1988). Frost resistance during shoot elongation in Picea abies seedlings in relation to the growth environment of the previous growing period. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5355. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15512
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; frost damages; cold tolerance; nursery stock; late-frost resistance; physiological status; hardiness development; irradiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Frost resistance during shoot elongation in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was studied in two experiments. The aim of the first study was to evaluate the effect of varying mineral nutrition. Except for potassium, only minor differences in mineral elements concentrations were established, presumably due to low levels of irradiance and thus a low rate of dry matter production. No significant differences in frost injuries were found between the treatments in the experimental series, but the control seedlings were significantly less injured. It is assumed that poor hardiness development at the end of one growth period resulting from low levels of irradiance may decrease the frost resistance during the next shoot elongation phase. Observations from the second experiment with Norway spruce nursery stocks representing different seedling ages and production systems, support this assumption.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rostad, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5352, category Article
Lars Christersson, Heinrich A. von Fircks. (1988). Injuries to conifer seedlings caused by simulated summer frost and winter desiccation. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5352. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15509
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; Picea mariana; conifers; frost damage; Sweden; Pinus contorta; seedlings; cold tolerance; frost hardiness in growing phase; winter desiccation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Visible frost damage to forest trees in Sweden seldom occurs in winter but is frequent in late spring, summer and early autumn. Frosts are frequent in all seasons in various parts of Sweden, even in the southernmost part (lat. 56°, N) and temperatures may be as low as -10°C even around mid-summer. Ice crystal formation within the tissues, which in most seedlings takes place at around -2°C, causes injury, not the sub-zero temperatures themselves.

The apical meristem, the elongated zone, and the needles of seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in a growing phase were damaged at about -3°C and those of Pinus sylvestris L. at about -6°C. Other species of the genus Pinus were tested and most were found to be damaged at about -6°C, with some variations. Picea species tested were damaged at about -3°C to -4°C.

A method has been designed to compare the response of different species to winter desiccation, which occurs under conditions of (1) low night temperature, (2) very high irradiation and increase in needle temperature during the photoperiod, (3) frozen soil, and (4) low wind speed. There were differences in response to winter desiccation between pine and spruce species. Seedlings of Pinus contorta tolerated these winter desiccation conditions much better than those of P. sylvestris or Picea abies. Picea mariana was the least tolerant of the species tested.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Christersson, E-mail: lc@mm.unknown (email)
  • Fircks, E-mail: hf@mm.unknown
article id 5351, category Article
Tapani Repo. (1988). Physical and physiological aspects of impedance measurements in plants. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5351. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15508
Keywords: developmental stage; electrical impedance; cross-sectional area; frost resistance; temperature acclimation; physiology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Electrical impedance characteristics of plant cells are dependent on such physiological factors as physiological condition, developmental stage, cell structure, nutrient status, water balance and temperature acclimation. In the measurements also such technical and physical factors as type of electrodes, frequency, geometry of the object, inter-electrode distance and temperature have an effect. These factors are discussed especially with respect to the impedance method in frost resistance studies of plants.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Repo, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5348, category Article
Risto Häkkinen, Pertti Hari. (1988). The efficiency of time and temperature driven regulation principles in plants at the beginning of the active period. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5348. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15505
Keywords: temperature; phenology; regulation; annual cycle; spring frost
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The distribution of the minimum temperatures after the beginning of the active period (one temperature for each spring) have been calculated for each principle using daily meteorological data collected during the years 1883–1980. The efficiency criterion is the variance of the minimum temperature distributions and the length of the active period. The most efficient regulation principle is found to be based on the temperature sum which includes a feedback component.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Häkkinen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
article id 5308, category Article
Martti Saarilahti, R. E. L. Ole-Meiludie. (1987). Production rate and work strain on workers in cutting of pines in Tanzania. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5308. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15465
Keywords: logging; forest work; physical stress; Tanzania; payment system; production rate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A team of 2 experienced workers was time-studied and their heart rate recorded under 4 days in clearcutting of a highly self-pruned Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. plantation. Task work and bonus payment systems were compared, but there was no difference in production rate, only the workplace time was extended from 2.3 h/d in task work to 3.9 h/d in bonus payment. The heart rate was 115–116 P/min in felling, 105–109 P/min in debranching and 109–114 P/min in bucking. The average heart rate in timber cutting was 108–109 P/min. Work load index was 34–37%, and the workers did not show any symptoms of accumulated stress. The production rate was 3.2 m3/h, (WPT, crew), which corresponds average piecework rate, the comparable walking speed being about 6.0 km/h. There are possibilities to increase the daily task by ergonomic grounds.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ole-Meiludie, E-mail: ro@mm.unknown
article id 5307, category Article
Simo Poso, Raito Paananen, Markku Similä. (1987). Forest inventory by compartments using satellite imagery. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5307. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15464
Keywords: forest inventory; stand characteristics; remote sensing; Landsat 5 TM; forest inventory and monitoring; two phase sampling; ancillary information
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method for using satellite data in forest inventories and updating is described and tested. The stand characteristics estimated by the method showed high correlation with the same characteristics measured in the field. The correlation coefficients for volume, age and mean height were about 0.85. It seems that the method is applicable to practical forestry. Extensive work in programming, however, is required.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Paananen, E-mail: rp@mm.unknown
  • Similä, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown
article id 5303, category Article
Hannu Raitio. (1987). Neulasvuosikertojen merkitys neulasanalyysin tulkinnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 5303. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15460
English title: The significance of the number of needle year classes of Scots pine in interpreting needle analysis results.
Original keywords: mänty; ravinnepitoisuus; neulasvuosikerta; neulasanalyysi
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nitrogen; Scots pine; phosphorus; needle analysis; potassium; magnesium; needle year classes
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This study deals with significance of the number of needle year classes in estimating the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plants on the basis of needle analysis. Due to the nutrient retranslocation deficiencies in these nutrients are best determined by analysing separately the needles of the topmost branch whorls possessing one, two or three needle year classes. The concentrations of those nutrients which are not scarce will then increase as needle year classes decrease. In cases of deficiency, on the other hand, the content of the nutrient concerned will remain the same or decrease. Only severe deficiencies are revealed by the examination of the nutrient concentrations of only the youngest or the oldest needles.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Raitio, E-mail: hr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5275, category Article
Pirkko Velling, Gérard Nepveu. (1986). Männyn puuaineen laadun ja tuotoksen vaihtelu suomalaisessa provenienssikoesarjassa. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5275. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15454
English title: Variation of wood quality and yield in a Finnish series of provenance trials on Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; kasvupaikka; alkuperä; puuaineen tiheys; maantieteellinen vaihtelu; kuitusaanto
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; wood density; geographical variation; increment cores; fibre yield
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the origin of seeds and the location of cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on certain properties particularly important to the pulp industry. The research material consisted of six parallel trials of the same 12 provenances. Increment cores were taken of a total of 1,267 sample trees, 19 years old. The location of the trial site generally affected the properties to a larger extent than the origin of the seed. The effect of the variation of wood density and fibre yield on the cultivation values of the provenances was only a few percentages on average, however, at most the effect was nearly 10%. Eastern Finnish provenances adapted well to western Finnish conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish and French.

  • Velling, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nepveu, E-mail: gn@mm.unknown
article id 5265, category Article
J. Ross, S. Kellomäki, P. Oker-Blom, V. Ross, L. Vilikainen. (1986). Architecture of Scots pine crown. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5265. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15444
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; needle dimensions; shoot structure; phytometrical regressions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Dimensions (length, width and thickness) of needles in crowns of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were found to be related linearly to each other. Similarly, the needle area was linearly correlated with the needle biomass. In the lower crown, needle length was linearly correlated with the length of the shoot, but in the upper crown needle length did not vary according to any regular pattern. Needle density was negatively correlated with shoot length. In the lower crown the needle density varied 20–40 cm-1 and in the upper crown 15– 20 cm-1. The increasing angle of aging needles seemed to be characteristic for Scots pine shoots.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Ross, E-mail: jr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Oker-Blom, E-mail: po@mm.unknown
  • Ross, E-mail: vr@mm.unknown
  • Vilikainen, E-mail: lv@mm.unknown
article id 5257, category Article
Heikki Hänninen. (1986). Metsäpuiden vuosirytmitutkimuksen käsitteistä ja teorioista. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5257. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15436
English title: Conceptual remarks about the study of the annual rhythm of forest trees.
Original keywords: lämpösumma; ekofysiologia; fenologia; vuosirytmi; dormanssi; aklimaatio
English keywords: acclimation; temperature sum; climatic adaptation; dormancy; phenology; photoperiod; annual cycle of development
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Different approaches to the study of the annual rhythm of forest trees are described and compared by analysing the concepts and theories presented in the literature. The seasonality varying morphological and physiological state of forest trees is referred to as the annual rhythm s. lat., from which the annual ontogenetic rhythm is separated as a distinct type. The dormancy phenomena of the trees are grouped into four categories. Theories concerning the regulation of the annual rhythm are divided into two main types, the most common examples of which are the photoperiod theory and the temperature sum theory. Recent efforts towards a synthetic theory are described.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hänninen, E-mail: hh@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5256, category Article
Outi Muona, Raimo Hiltunen, Erkki Morén, D. V. Shaw. (1986). Analysis of monoterpene variation in natural stands and plustrees of Pinus sylvestris in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5256. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15435
Original keywords: mänty; alkuperä; pluspuut; monoterpeenit; luonnonpopulaatiot
English keywords: Scots pine; progeny; plus trees; monoterpenes; geographical variation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Variation of monoterpene composition of Pinus sylvestris L. was studied in Southern, Central and Northern Finland using data from both natural stands and plus trees. The natural stands were analysed using different techniques and for fewer terpenes than the plus trees.

There were large differences between areas in the proportion of 3-carene in trees from natural stands, as has been discussed by previous authors. The proportion of 3-carene is bimodally distributed and believed to be controlled by a single gene with large effect. For this reason, we stratified our samples into high carene (>10%) and low carene (<10%) groups. Univariate analysis did not reveal any additional differences between natural populations in different zones for components other than 3-carene. In plus trees, several components showed significant differences, but the proportion of 3-carene did not differ between areas. Multivariate discrimination analysis did not distinguish between areas for natural stands. However, for the plus trees discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate between the zones relatively efficiently. The proportion of correct classification was greater than 64% using the best methods. The central zone was most distinct, and 80% of its trees were correctly classified. Broad generalizations are not possible due to the limitations imposed by our data. Our analysis of phenotypic variation does not support the suggestion that plus trees selected from the north represent a southern type.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Muona, E-mail: om@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hiltunen, E-mail: rh@mm.unknown
  • Morén, E-mail: em@mm.unknown
  • Shaw, E-mail: ds@mm.unknown
article id 5240, category Article
Pertti Harstela, Kimmo Piirainen. (1985). Effect of whole-body vibration and driving a forest machine simulator on some physiological variables of the operator. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5240. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15419
Keywords: heart rate; forest workers; ergonomy; occupational health; physical stress; forestry equipment; forest machine drivers; horizontal vibration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The influence of horizontal whole-body vibration of fairly low intensity alone and combined with the mental load and motor action typical for the forest machine drive on heart rate variability (HRV), respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) was studied by testing five subjects. Horizontal vibration had an influence on HR, HRV and RR. ’Control activities’ had the most influence on RR and HRV, but some influence on HR, too. ’Moving the control devices’ (motor action) gave the same response in HR as ’control activities’, but not in HRV and RR. ’Control activities’ together with ’vibration’ had a more effect on HRV and RR than these two factors singly, but not on HR. The possibilities of using these variables in field studies are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Harstela, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Piirainen, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
article id 5234, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Eero Paavilainen. (1985). Hydrological amelioration and forest practice on drained peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5234. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15413
Keywords: drainage; peatlands; peatland forestry; hydrology; forest research; bibligraphies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This bibliography consists of monographs, papers published in periodicals and journals and collections of scientific papers from research and educational institutes, and transactions from scientific congresses, seminars, symposia and meetings.

The publications have been divided into three basic sections. In each section the publications are listed in alphabetical order by the author(s) or title. The total number of the titles in this bibliography is 465.

  • Mälkönen, E-mail:
  • Paavilainen, E-mail:
article id 5210, category Article
Heikki Smolander, Juha Lappi. (1984). The interactive effect of water stress and temperature on the CO2 response of photosynthesis in Salix. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5210. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15389
Keywords: drought stress; willow; temperature; photosynthetic capacity; Salix sp.; Salix sp. cv. Aquatica; CO2 conductance
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The interactive effects of water stress and temperature on the CO2 response of photosynthesis was studied in Salix sp. cv. Aquatica using the closed IRGA system. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the CO2 response of photosynthesis. The interactive effect of water stress and temperature was divided into two components: the change in CO2 conductance and the change in the photosynthetic capacity. The CO2 conductance was not dependent on the temperature when the willow plant was well watered, but during water stress it decreased as the temperature increased. The photosynthetic capacity of the willow plant increased along with an increase in temperature when well-watered, but during water stress temperature had quite opposite effect.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Lappi, E-mail: jl@mm.unknown
article id 5202, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1983). Flight periods of some birch timber insects. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5202. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15185
Keywords: birch; Betula; insect damages; swarming; birch timber; Scolytus ratzeburgi; Agrilus viridis; Xiphydria camelus; Leptura quadrifasciata
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Flight periods of insects breeding on birch (Betula sp.) timber were observed by means of window flight traps baited with freshly cut birch logs in five locations in Finland from 1972 to 1976. Only few species were caught during the study. In general, these species were on the wing during midsummer, although flight periods of some of them were relatively long. Scolytus ratzeburgi Jans. caused harmful staining of wood within a month from attack, but the damage by the wood-boring pests remained negligible throughout the first storage summer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5193, category Article
Juhani Jokinen, Antti Häkkinen, Reijo Karjalainen, Kari Markkanen, Tapani Säynätkari. (1983). Effects of air pollution on Scots pine needles. I. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5193. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15176
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; air pollution; sulphur dioxide; peroxidase activity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of meteorological factors, the total sulphur content of the needles, and SO2 concentration in the ambient air on total peroxidase activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was investigated in material obtained from Southern Finland. The correlation between temperature and total peroxidase activity was highest during the most active growing period. Linear correlation between relative humidity and total peroxidase activity appears to be low. The correlation between atmospheric SO2 concentration and total peroxidase activity was also low and varied inconsistently. The detected low association between the sulphur dioxide pollutant and the total peroxidase activity was assumed to be related to the sensitivity of peroxidase activity, many eco-physiological factors and to the genetic variation in conifers. It is difficult to separate a response due to this pollutant from environmental and genetic factors in a complex coniferous forest. Using total peroxidase activity as a routine indicator of air pollution seems to be unsuitable because of the large sample size required in order to obtain a reliable measurement of the pollutant’s effect under low pollution levels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jokinen, E-mail: jj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Häkkinen, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Karjalainen, E-mail: rk@mm.unknown
  • Markkanen, E-mail: km@mm.unknown
  • Säynätkari, E-mail: ts@mm.unknown
article id 5184, category Article
Annikki Karjalainen, Lauri Hyväkkä, Sini Kärki-Folkersma. (1983). Metsätieteellisen kirjallisuuden haku atk-tiedostoista. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5184. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15100
English title: Experiences of some bibliographic databases in forestry.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; tiedonhaku; tietokannat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographic databases
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The usefulness of some international bibliographic databases for Finnish forest researchers was studied. In this study, 26 gratis online searches from one or more databases was made. The searches were carried out using mainly AGRICOLA, BIOSIS and CAB databases. The most used database was CAB, which includes Forestry Abstracts. The relevance of the references retrieved was evaluated by the users. Recall, precision, novelty and overlap of the references were measured. The users evaluated the results and costs of their search. Some previous comparable studies are reviewed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Karjalainen, E-mail: ak@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hyväkkä, E-mail: lh@mm.unknown
  • Kärki-Folkersma, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5169, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pasi Puttonen, Heikki Tamminen, Carl Johan Westman. (1982). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthesis and growth in young Scots pines. Preliminary results. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 4 article id 5169. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15084
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; fertilization; Scots pine; stem growth; nitrogen fertilization; needle area; photosynthetic rate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Application of nitrogen at levels of 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 resulted in increases of 35, 18 and 12% in the photosynthetic rate in young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The number of buds, degree of branching, and needle size were positively related to the amount of nitrogen applied. A 10–40% increase in the average needle area was found. A positive correlation was found between total photosynthesis and stem growth.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Puttonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
  • Tamminen, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown
  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown
article id 5164, category Article
Juhani Kangas, Tapio Klen. (1982). Raivaussahan kantokäsittelylaitteen käyttäjän altistuminen torjunta-aineille. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5164. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15079
English title: Exposure of forest workers to herbicides.
Original keywords: metsätyö; työturvallisuus; torjunta-aineet; raivaussahat; vesakontorjunta; glyfosaatti; torjunta-aineruiskutus; altistuminen
English keywords: herbicides; brush saw; glyphosate; forest work; occupational health; sprout control; arboricides; chemical brush control; MCPA
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of this study was to measure workers’ exposure to MCPA and glyphosate when sprayers connected to the brush saws was used. A non-pressurized sprayer with a pump and a pressurized sprayer where dosage was regulated with manual control were studied. Exposure was measured from the breathing zone and urine samples.

MCPA collected from the breathing zone gathered into alcohol was 0.05 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.02 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.04 mg/m3 (average) for both types of sprayers together.

MCPA in the breathing zone, collected from splashes and fog into a glass fibre filter, was 0.18 mg/m3 for the pressurized sprayer, 0.09 mg/m3 for the non-pressurized sprayer, and 0.12 mg/m3 for both sprayers used together. Glyphosate in the breathing zone, collected into sodium hydroxide was below 0.05 mg/m3.

In five urine samples taken after the work day there was on the average 0.4 mg/l MCPA, while in 21 samples the MCPA contents were under the definition limit (0.2 mg/l).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kangas, E-mail: jk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Klen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown
article id 5161, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1982). Physical properties of peat samples in relation to shrinkage upon drying. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 5161. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15076
Keywords: peat; density; bulk density; shrinkage; chemicophysical properties; drying; peat type
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The study discusses the amount of shrinkage of volumetric undisturbed peat samples when drying to an oven-dry (105°C) condition. The amount of shrinkage is related to various physical properties of peat. In addition, some observations were performed on the shrinkage phenomenon during the drying process. The study results may be used when predicting the shrinkage of peat samples with various peat properties. Knowledge of this kind is particularly important in connection with peat harvesting.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Päivänen, E-mail: jp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5154, category Article
Satu Huttunen, Sinikka Kallio, Marketta Karhu. (1981). The effect of air pollution on transplanted mosses. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5154. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15381
Keywords: bryophytes; Hylocomnium splendens; Pleurozium schreberi; air pollution; bioindicators; nitrogen fixation capacity; blue-green algae; surface structure; stress respiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The use of forest mosses as bioindicators was tested with transplanted experiments. One transplantation experiment was made to study effects of air pollutants on two forest moss species, Hylocomnium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. and Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. Another transplantation was used to study the nitrogen fixation capacity of blue-green algae in the Hylocomnium and Pleurozium moss layers. The surface structure of the moss species was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The air pollution induced changes in the surface structure of moss cells were observable soon after the transplantation. In polluted industrial areas the fertilizing effect of air-borne nitrogen compounds increased the photosynthetic activity of mosses before their destruction. Stress respiration was also observable in polluted areas. The nitrogen fixing capacity decreased or was almost inhibited in all the air-polluted environments.

  • Huttunen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kallio, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Karhu, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5153, category Article
T. Raunemaa, R. Erkinjuntti, M. Gerlander, A. Hautojärvi, K. Kaisla, H.-S. Katainen. (1981). Multielement analysis of treated pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5153. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15380
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; photosynthesis; Scots pine; roots; air pollution; acid rain; environmental impact; acid deposition; elemental concentrations
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A comparison study concerning the effects of acid rain on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings has been performed. Two different X-ray fluorescence methods, PIXE and IXRF, were employed to produce multielement analyses of the samples. Seedlings were treated for 3 months with watering of pH=7 or pH=3 liquids on the needles and on the roots. One year and two years old needles of the seedlings were inspected for changes in photosynthetic rate as well as for changes in elemental concentrations.

Twelve elements from Si to Zn were compared in the samples. The PIXE results show that the amounts of most of these elements in the needles of the seedlings grown in sand increase, when treated with acid water. This growth is clearer when the roots are treated with acid water. The elemental concentrations of the needles in the seedlings grown in soil on the other hand decrease slightly.

  • Raunemaa, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Erkinjuntti, E-mail: re@mm.unknown
  • Gerlander, E-mail: mg@mm.unknown
  • Hautojärvi, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown
  • Kaisla, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown
  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown
article id 5151, category Article
A. Mäkelä, P. Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). A model for the effect of air pollutants on forest growth. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5151. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15378
Keywords: photosynthesis; growth; modelling; air pollution; environmental impact; allocation of photosynthates
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A model was constructed, the aim of which was to predict growth under conditions where air pollutants are present. The model is based on photosynthesis and on the allocation of photosynthetic products for growth. It is assumed that air pollutants released during energy production mainly affect photosynthesis in two ways: 1) directly by injuring the photosynthetic mechanism, and 2) indirectly by leaching nutrients. The two ways were studied empirically in order to identify a sub-model for the photosynthesis of a plant exposed to air pollutants. 

The stand model will be applied to two purposes. The present stage of forests in Finland is compared with the simulated state based on the assumption that no pollutants are present. In addition, the decrease in forest yield under different conditions derived from predictions about long-range pollutant transport in Europe is analysed.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5149, category Article
Toini Holopainen. (1981). Alterations in the ultrastructure of epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes and Alectoria capillaris caused by air pollution. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5149. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15376
Keywords: lichens; air pollution; bioindicators; indicator plants; Hypogymnia physodes; fertilization plant; pulpmill; Bryoria capillaris; ultrastructure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The ultrastructure of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Alectoria capillaris (Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.) grown or transplanted near a fertilizer plant and a pulp mill was compared to normal ultrastructure of these lichen species. The ultrastructural changes observed were highly similar in the symbionts of both species and near both the factories although the emissions are different. In the lichens grown near the factories the number of algae had clearly increased. The appearance of the chloroplasts was roundish compared to controls. The pyrenoglobuli and cytoplasmic storage bodies were smaller than normally and the number of polyphosphate bodies had increased. Also, in mycobionts storage droplets were very small or absent and many vacuoles and dark inclusions appeared to hyphae in contrast to controls. In transplanted lichen there existed mainly the same ultrastructural changes as in the lichen grown near factories. Near the fertilizer plant the damage was, however, more severe because all the lichens died during 6–7 months after transplantation. Near the pulp mill part of the lichens survived and seemed to adapt to air pollution.

  • Holopainen, E-mail: th@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5148, category Article
A. Hautojärvi, S. Ahonen, R. Erkinjuntti, H.-S. Katainen, T. Lappalainen, T. Raunemaa. (1981). Surface concentration of sulphur on Scots pine needles. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5148. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15375
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; Finland; coal; air pollution; measurement methods; environmental impact; sulphur; power plant; sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A method to determine sulphur as sulphate has been applied to search for surface concentration of sulphate sulphur on needle samples. The method is based on reducing sulphates as volatile hydrogen sulphide gas by using hydriodic acid. The hydrogen sulphide gas is swept with nitrogen into an absorbent solution. Sulphide ion concentration in solution is then measured using ion selective electrodes.

The method was applied on one to four years old needle samples collected from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at 0.9 to 15.9 km distances from a 1,064 MW coal-fired power plant in Southern Finland. Surface sulphate values found in the samples closer than 4 km to the power plant were 50 to 100% higher than a nearly constant background level. No significant variation of values with needle age was found. The advantages of the method compares to other methods for sulphur determination are speed, reasonable sensitivity and low detection limit.

  • Hautojärvi, E-mail: ah@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahonen, E-mail: sa@mm.unknown
  • Erkinjuntti, E-mail: re@mm.unknown
  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown
  • Lappalainen, E-mail: tl@mm.unknown
  • Raunemaa, E-mail: tr@mm.unknown
article id 5146, category Article
J. N. Cape, D. Fowler. (1981). Changes in epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris exposed to polluted air. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5146. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15373
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; damage; air pollution; environmental impact; sulphur dioxide; foliage; epicuticular vax; cuticular transpiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to study structural changes in epicuticular vax of Pinus sylvestris L. with time. Changes in the contact angle of water droplets and in cuticular transpiration were also measured. By using material from a polluted and an unpolluted site it was shown that the ageing process occurs faster on polluted air, leading to greater cuticular transpiration and smaller contact angles at polluted sites.

  • Cape, E-mail: jc@mm.unknown (email)
  • Fowler, E-mail: df@mm.unknown
article id 5144, category Article
Lennart Folkeson. (1981). Impact of air-borne copper and zinc pollution on lichen and bryophyte vegetation near a brass foundry. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5144. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15371
Keywords: bryophytes; lichen; damage; copper; coniferous forests; Hylocomnium splendens; mosses; air pollution; environmental impact; brass foundry; Hypogymnia physodes; zinc
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Air-borne Cu and Zn from a brass foundry at Gusum, SE Sweden, have considerably disturbed the lichen and bryophyte vegetation in the coniferous forest environment. The occurrence of lichens on Norway spruce twigs decreased rapidly with increasing Cu concentrations in Hypogymnia physodes above 90 ppm (background value 10–15). The epiphytic vegetation is reduced within 2–3 km from the foundry. Only stunted individuals occur in the close vicinity of the pollution source.

The cover of one of the quantitatively most important mosses, Hylocomnium splendens, is greatly reduced by the heavy-metal deposition. Cover values of 20–50% are not uncommon in distant sites (Cu concentration 15–35 ppm). There is a significant negative correlation between Cu concentration in the moss and its cover. The moss cannot survive much more than ca. 130 ppm Cu (and 360 ppm Zn). Live individuals are no more found within 1.5 km from the foundry.

  • Folkeson, E-mail: lf@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5142, category Article
Lars Moseholm. (1981). Responses of transplanted lichens to sulphur dioxide dosages - a new semi-statistical dosage/injury model. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5142. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15369
Keywords: lichen; modelling; methods; air pollution; sulphur dioxide; bioindicators; indicator plants; plant injury; air pollutant concentration; monitoring method
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A semi-statistical model is suggested for monitoring injuries of plants for long-time field exposures (months). The model is based on the following assumptions:

1. The concentrations of air pollutants in the atmosphere follow the Johnson SB distribution.

2. The degree of plant injury is proportional to the logarithm of air pollutant dose.

3. No injuries occur below a certain dose level.

4. A dose is defined as the air pollutant concentration multiplied by the duration of exposure raised to an exponent.

Based on the air pollutant frequency distribution a total dose for the exposure period is calculated by integration, and the total dose is related to the observed plant injury by non-linear regression. The model is tested for long-time exposures of sulphur dioxide to transplant lichen in natural environment.

  • Moseholm, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5141, category Article
Lisbeth Mortensen, Knud V. Weisberg. (1981). A method for measurement of actue leaf injury on tobacco indicator plants. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5141. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15368
Keywords: damages; photography; measuring methods; air pollution; bioindicators; Nicotiana tabacum; leaves; damaged leaf area; ozone
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A technique for instrumental scoring of damaged leaves on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) indicator plants caused by ozone in the lower atmosphere is being developed. The leaves are photographed in situ with an integrated unit, which illuminates the leaf from behind and keeps the camera in a well-defined position. By using microfilm and a minus green filter, it is possible to obtain negatives where the necrotic flecks appear as dark spots on a white leaf. The negatives are scanned in a TV-system and the size of the damaged fraction of the leaf is calculated by a microprosessor and is shown as a percentage of the leaf.

  • Mortensen, E-mail: lm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Weisberg, E-mail: kw@mm.unknown
article id 5140, category Article
Lars Westman. (1981). Monitoring of coniferous forest ecosystems in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5140. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15367
Keywords: soil respiration; conifers; tree growth; acidification; Sweden; air pollution; monitoring programme; acid compounds; heavy metals; bioindicators; phosphatase activity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A monitoring program is planned for the terrestrial environment around industries in Sweden, which emit acid compounds and heavy metals. Directions for the County Government Boards are being prepared. The paper deals with the present pollution situation in Sweden, based on recent scientific results, the justifications for local monitoring, and the organizing of the monitoring including the parameters suggested.

Four examples from a case study at an oil power station illustrate reporting of the data and the difficulties in interpreting the results. The examples are the distribution of a lichen indicator, heavy metal content and phosphatase activity in the moor layer, soil respiration and tree growth.

  • Westman, E-mail: lw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5139, category Article
Boguslaw Molski, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Wojciech Dmuchowski. (1981). Content of sulphur and fluorine compounds in Scots pine needles as an indicator of air pollution in Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5139. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15366
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; needles; Scots pine; inventory; Poland; air pollution; sulphur; soluble fluorides; Warsaw; Plock; chemical analysis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Our preliminary findings indicate that the content of total sulphur and soluble fluorides in needles of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) reflects the degree of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. A project for a map of air pollution in Poland, based on chemical analysis of Scots pine needles, is presented. Results of the total sulphur and soluble fluoride content in 2-year old needles from 15- to 25-year-old trees should yield a picture of air pollution with sulphur and fluorine compounds. The first stage will involve the preparation of a map of the area between the Warsaw and Plock agglomerations. This area will be divided into 10 squares with side dimension of 25 km each. Samples will be taken at 5 different sites in each square and also approximately every 5 km along a straight line between these towns.

  • Molski, E-mail: bm@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bytnerowicz, E-mail: ab@mm.unknown
  • Dmuchowski, E-mail: wd@mm.unknown
article id 5138, category Article
K. Kvist, C. Jakobsson. (1981). Vegetation injury occurring after winter at a fertilizer factory. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5138. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15365
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; nitrogen; needles; Scots pine; Sweden; emissions; air pollution; sulphur; fertilizer plant; fluorine
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Air pollution injury to vegetation often occurs near a fertilizer factory in Central Sweden. The causing incidence often occurs in the winter and the symptoms appear when metabolism starts in the spring. Deciduous and coniferous trees and bushes were injured in the spring of 1979. Samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were analysed for sulphur, total fluorine and nitrogen content, some of them for nitrate and ammonium. All the compounds showed elevated levels, clearly connected with the degree of exposure of the sampling site. The levels were higher in the spring than later in the growing season, indicating involvement in metabolism or leaching. None of the compounds was significantly in excess, although, elevated to an extent to indicate the cause of injury. Most probably the nitrogen compounds were involved. The problems encountered in tracing the causing pollutant, when injury appeared long after the incidence, might be easier solved with regularly used technical monitoring and bioindicator technique.

  • Kvist, E-mail: kk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Jakobsson, E-mail: cj@mm.unknown
article id 5137, category Article
V. C. Runeckles, K. T. Palmer, H. Trabelsi. (1981). Effects of field exposures to SO2 on Douglas fir, Agropyron spicatum and Lolium perenne. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5137. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15364
Keywords: root growth; shoot growth; air pollution; Douglas fir; Pseudotsuga mentziesii; Lolium perenne; Agropyron spicatum; sulphur dioxide
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Grasses Agropyron spicatum Pursh, Lolium perenne L. (S23) and 2-year old Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were exposed to low SO2 concentrations under field conditions for approximately eleven weeks. SO2 was released continuously via manifold delivery systems, and provided treatment mean concentrations of 0.007 (ambient air), 0.042, 0.106 and 0.198 ppm. The concentrations in each treatment were approximately log-normally distributed, with standard geometric deviations ranging from 2.58 to 3.24. In both grass species, 0.198 ppm SO2 caused substantial reduction of total growth. In L. perenne, this was largely the result of impaired root growth, whereas both shoot and root growth of A. spicatum were reduced. 0.106 ppm SO2 had no significant effect on A. spicatum growth, but reduced root growth of L. perenne. Growth of Douglas fir was reduced in each of the tree highest concentrations, with root growth being markedly diminished, particularly on trees which showed chlorotic and necrotic injury. However, in these trees the shoot and total leaf weights tended to increase at the highest SO2 concentrations, suggesting that in these plants injury to leaves stimulated further shoot growth at the expense of root development.

  • Runeckles, E-mail: vr@mm.unknown (email)
  • Palmer, E-mail: kp@mm.unknown
  • Trabelsi, E-mail: ht@mm.unknown
article id 5136, category Article
Sirkka Soikkeli. (1981). The types of ultrastructural injuries in conifer needles of northern industrial environments. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5136. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15363
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; needles; Scots pine; emissions; air pollution; cell organelles; mesophyll
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Ultrastructure of mesophyll of second-year green needles of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Pinus sylvestris (L.) has been studied in several polluted areas in Finland since 1976 (Soikkeli and Tuovinen 1979, Soikkeli 1981a). Four different types of injuries have been found. The types differ with the origin of the material:

1) In needles collected from areas pollute by S-communds the types with reduced grana and/or the with lightening of plastogobuli with simultaneous accumulation of lipid-like material are observed.

2) In needles expose to fluorides (alone or in addition to other pollutants) the type with swollen and/or that with curled thylakoids are found. Both of the latter have also stretched envelopes. In each type of the injury three stages of cell disruption have been described: slight-medium, severe and very severe. On the slight-medium stage the injuries are usually found only in chloroplasts. On severe stage other organelles show injuries, too. In very severe injury all cell organelles are badly disorganized or they disappear completely. The most abundant injuries are usually in needles collected after their second winter. The severity of cell injury depends on the closeness of emission source or on the measured concentration of SO2.

  • Soikkeli, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5135, category Article
L. Skärby, C. Bengtson, C.-Å. Boström, P. Grennfelt, E. Troeng. (1981). Uptake of NOx in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5135. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15362
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; acidification; air pollution; environmental impact; sulphur oxide; nitrogen oxide
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Information on input of acidifying compounds like SO2 and NOx is necessary to understand effects of acidification. The uptake on NO and NO2 respectively was studied on seedlings and shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Experiments were conducted both in laboratory (NO and NO2 respectively) and in the field (NO2) under light and dark conditions. In all three cases there was a linear relationship between the uptake rate and the NOx-concentration. The uptake follows a diurnal pattern i.e. the uptake rate was strongly correlated with the stomatal movements. Uptake rates were converted to deposition rate and the results showed that field exposure with NO2 gave the higher deposition rate.

  • Skärby, E-mail: ls@mm.unknown (email)
  • Bengtson, E-mail: cb@mm.unknown
  • Boström, E-mail: cb@mm.unknown
  • Grennfelt, E-mail: pg@mm.unknown
  • Troeng, E-mail: et@mm.unknown
article id 5131, category Article
Risto Jalkanen, Satu Huttunen, Teija Väisänen. (1981). The wax structure of the developing needles of Pinus sylvestris progenies infected by Lophodermella sulcigena. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5131. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15188
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; disease resistance; pathogens; Lophodermella sulcigena; progenies; needle structure; stomatal cavity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The development of the stomatal area wax structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied in flushing needles with a scanning electron microscope. The needles were obtained from eleven Finnish plus tree progenies. The needles were taken from trees that were either nearly uninfected or heavily infected by Lophodermella sulcigena (Rostr.) Höhn.

No difference in the early developmental stages of stomatal vax structure were observed between the southern Finnish, central Finnish and northern Finnish progenies. The general structure differed in the stomatal cavity chamber size. The stomatal openings were larger in heavily infected trees than in healthy trees. This might have an influence on the mechanical penetration of the fungal hyphae.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jalkanen, E-mail: rj@mm.unknown (email)
  • Huttunen, E-mail: sh@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: tv@mm.unknown
article id 5125, category Article
Ilppo Greis, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce undergrowth under varying shading. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5125. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15066
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; photosynthesis; height growth; shading; crown; undergrowth; crown structure
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The crown structure and stem growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) undergrowth was studied in relation to the prevailing light conditions and potential photosynthesis. Shading decreased the stem height growth more than the length increment of laterals, producing a plate-shaped crown in deep shade. Needles responded to shading by adopting a horizontal inclination in deep shade. The needles were wide and thin respectively in shade. In the open the needle cross-section was almost square. Stem radial growth and height growth were both affected by shading exhibiting a linear response to the prevailing light conditions and the potential photosynthesis. Light conditions under dominating trees were closely correlated with the basal area of the dominating trees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Greis, E-mail: ig@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5123, category Article
Heljä-Sisko Katainen, Seppo Kellomäki. (1981). Happaman veden vaikutus männyn taimiin. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 3 article id 5123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15064
English title: Effect of foliar application of dilute sulphuric acid on Scots pine seedlings.
Original keywords: mänty; taimet; pituuskasvu; neulasvauriot; fotosynteesi; happamuus; hapan sade
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; height growth; acidity; seedlings; needle damages; acid rain
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Needle damages, transpiration, photosynthesis and needle and stem height growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings treated with dilute sulphuric acid were studied. The acidity of the solution was pH 3. Application of a dilute solution of sulphuric acid equivalent to the normal amount of precipitation occurring during the growing season damaged the surface of two-year-old needles but not that of the current-year needles. A reduction in the photosynthetic rate of 10–30% was observed compared with the untreated seedlings. Transpiration of the seedlings was not affected by the treatment. Needle growth and stem height growth of the seedlings growing on a substrate representing poor sandy soil were reduced. Increased needle growth and stem height growth were characteristic for the seedlings growing on substrate representing fertile moraine.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Katainen, E-mail: hk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5092, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Kanninen. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. IV. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5092. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15033
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; height growth; radial growth; basic density; crown; photosynthate supply; light conditions
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Crown and stem growth of young Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in relation to photosynthate supply and light condition in a stand. The magnitude of needle and bud formation, and radial and height growth were to a great extent dependent on the photosynthate supply. However, in shaded conditions the growth of each characteristics was greater than expected on the basis of photosynthate supply. In the stem system this was especially apparent for height growth. Consequently, height growth was favoured at the expense of radial growth in shaded conditions. It also appeared that the basic density of wood was negatively related to both tree position and photosynthate supply.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5090, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Raili Voipio. (1980). Suomalainen haapa- ja poppelilajeja (Populus) koskeva kirjallisuus 1759...1979. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5090. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15031
English title: Finnish literature on aspen and poplar species (genus Populus), 1759–1979.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; Suomi; poppeli; haapa
English keywords: Populus tremula; Finland; forest research; aspen; bibliography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The first Finnish paper on aspen (Populus tremula L.) was published in 1759 in Åbo (Turku). After this dissertation, numerous scientific and other articles and reports have been published. In this bibliography about 340 papers are listed. Most of the papers deal only with aspen or other species of the genus Populus. Besides these even those articles have been included which deal with other problems but contain some information on the features of poplars.

The titles are listed without any translation or classification. If an article has a summary, it is shown in the title.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Voipio, E-mail: rv@mm.unknown
article id 5088, category Article
Reijo Solantie, Kari Ahti. (1980). Säätekijöiden vaikutus Etelä-Suomen lumituhoihin v. 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5088. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15029
English title: The influence of weather on the snow damages for forests in Southern Finland in 1959.
Original keywords: Etelä-Suomi; lumituhot; sääolosuhteet; sääilmiöt; huurre
English keywords: snow damage; rime; weather conditions; Southern Finland; orographic precipitation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Solantie, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown (email)
  • Ahti, E-mail: ka@mm.unknown
article id 5082, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Pith flecks and ray abnormalities in birch wood. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5082. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15023
Keywords: Betula pendula; Betula pubescens; wood structure; insect damage; rays; Dendromyza betulae; Phytobia betulae
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Samples that had extensive pith flecks, caused by the larvae of Dendromyza betulae (now Phytobia betulae E.Kang), were collected from two trees of Betula pendula Roth and two B. pubescens Erhr. The age of the trees varied from 45 to 56 years. The effect of larvae injury on the rays was studied. The width of affected rays in both species was more than twice that of normal rays. The height and frequency also increased considerably. When describing the anatomy of Betula species the pith flecks should be treated with caution in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, E-mail: kb@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5080, category Article
Annikki Mäkelä, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. III. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5080. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15021
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; biomass; Scots pine; canopy layer; wood formation; needle biomass; photosynthate allocation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The proportions of needle and wood in current-year shoots in crown systems of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was studied. The proportion of needles out of the total shoot biomass increased according to the increasing number of the whorl counted from the apex. In the lower part of the crown system the needle biomass of newly-formed shoots was 50–60 fold compared to that of wood and bark biomass. In the upper part of the crown system the same ratio was 1–2. The variation in ratio between needle and wood biomass was whorl-specific and independent of tree class. The magnitude of the ratio was not related to the position of the tree in the stand nor to the prevailing light conditions within the state.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, E-mail: am@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 5079, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari, Pirkko Ilonen, Markku Kanninen. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. II. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5079. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15020
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; stand density; needle biomass; crown class; needle distribution
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The technique of double normalizing, i.e. normalizing the relative needle biomass and the length of the living crown system, is applied to the modelling of the distribution of needle biomass in the canopy of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The study based on the parameters of β-function shows that at the individual-tree level, the variance in needle distribution was not closely associated with any tree characteristics. A shift in the point of maximum needle biomass upwards unsuppressed trees was, however, evident. This was associated with an increase in the height of the trees. At the stand level, the stand mean height and stand density had an equal and a rather high potential for explaining the variance in the needle distribution. The normalized crowns are utilized in models for determining light extinction in the crown. A special technique for determining the amount of photosynthates available for growth in a particular tree is presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Ilonen, E-mail: pi@mm.unknown
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
article id 5078, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari. (1980). Eco-physiological studies on young Scots pine stands. I. Tree class as indicator of needle biomass, illumination and photosynthetic capacity of crown system. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5078. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15019
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; canopy; photosynthetic capacity; needle biomass; tree class
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concept of tree class as indicated by dominant, codominant, intermediate and suppressed trees is analysed using empirical material representing 13 younger Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The relative needle biomass, i.e. the needle biomass related to the maximum needle biomass in the stand, was closely related to the relative height of the tree and independent of the stand characteristics. Furthermore, the relative illumination of the crown system was related to the relative height of the trees as well as the relative photosynthetic capacity and tree-to-tree variation in growth. When calculated per needle biomass unit it appeared that height growth, radial growth, needle growth and other growth parameters were the highest in the suppressed trees. The suppressed trees thus appear to be more efficient in utilizing available resources than other tree classes. The ecologic significance of the results is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
article id 5074, category Article
Jukka Selander, Matti Nuorteva. (1980). Feromonivalmisteen käyttö kirjanpainajien torjumiseksi kuolevassa kuusikossa. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5074. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15015
English title: Use of synthetic pheromones for the control of spruce bark beetle in a heavily infested Norway spruce stand.
Original keywords: kuusi; kaarnakuoriaiset; torjunta; hyönteistuho; kirjanpainaja; feromonit
English keywords: bark beetles; insect damages; prevention; Ips typographus; Ips duplicatus; pheromones
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The dying-off of more trees in an over-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand caused by Ips-bark beetles was reduced by a pheromone preparation, ipslure. 20 preparations placed in trapping bolts captured more than 13,700 specimens of Ips typographus L. and Ips duplicatus Sahlb., which alone corresponded to a saving of five old trees in this valuable exhibition and seed collection stand. Attractance of ipslure to the following predators of bark beetles was also examined; Thanasimus formicarius, T. rufipes, Epuracea bickhardti, Rhizophagus ferrugineus, Pityophagus ferrugineus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Selander, E-mail: js@mm.unknown (email)
  • Nuorteva, E-mail: mn@mm.unknown
article id 5071, category Article
Martti Ryynänen. (1980). X-ray radiography of ageing Scots pine seeds. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5071. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15012
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; germination; Scots pine; storage; seeds; quality of seeds; X-ray radiography; X-ray contrast radiography
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Soft X-ray radiation (Grenz rays) has been used in the X-ray radiography of seeds. It is based on the principle that the different parts of the seed absorb X-rays to a slightly varying extent. Empty seeds and empty regions in the seeds appears as dark areas on the film. X-ray radiography without staining and X-ray contrast radiography were compared to study the stored seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The results were compared with the results of germination in a Jacobsen germinator according to ISTA norms.

Normal X-ray radiography gave too good estimates of germinative capacity of the seeds, and was shown to suit only when it is used to study fully ripe seeds which have recently been collected in an undamaged condition. The results of X-ray contrast radiography when barium chloride was used as the stain, however, followed closely the germination results.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ryynänen, E-mail: mr@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5062, category Article
I. Etverk. (1980). Geographical variability of the Norway spruce in the Estonian SSR. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5062. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15003
Keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; tree breeding; Estonia; provenience; Symposiums; Soviet Union; geographic variation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The productivity and several morphological features of Estonian Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) show significant geographical variation. This is no doubt because of differences in the climatic and soil conditions, which in spite of the small area of the country is quite large. In order to check the possible geographical variability of the gene pool, preliminary experiments were carried out in 1969, when seeds from 93 spruce stands originating from 14 forest enterprises were sowed in a nursery. After two years, the seedlings originating from south-eastern Estonia were the tallest. The seedlings from northern origins were smallest. However, it cannot be maintained that spruces from Southern Estonia are of better genotype than genotype from Northern Estonia since the genotypes are evaluated on the basis of ecological conditions under which the experiments are carried out. Another study suggests that an average shift of 7° to the east of the territory for spruces are suitable for cultivation in Estonia.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Etverk, E-mail: ie@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5048, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). The effect of solar radiation and air temperature on basic density of Scots pine wood. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5048. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14905
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; temperature; basic density; solar radiation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of solar radiation and air temperature on the basic density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood has been investigated on the basis of material obtained from the literature. Solar radiation seemed to affect basic density during earlywood formation. Temperature had the greatest effect on basic density  in late summer. The varying effects of radiation and temperature seemed to be associated with the dynamics of the crown system of trees. Especially the capacity of the crown system to produce the amount of photosynthesis needed in tracheid growth is assumed to be of importance in controlling the variation in the basic density of Scots pine wood. Growth of thracheids from the point of view of photosynthate supply is discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5019, category Article
Pertti Hari, Markku Kanninen, Seppo Kellomäki, Olavi Luukkanen, Paavo Pelkonen, Raimo Salminen, Heikki Smolander. (1979). An automatic system for measurements of gas exchange and environmental factors in a forest stand, with special reference to measuring principles. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5019. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14873
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; environmental factors; ecology; transpiration; measurement tecniques; forest stand
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A system for measuring the net photosynthesis, transpiration and environmental factors within the canopy and ground cover vegetation is described. The system operates continuously throughout the growing season in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. A data-logging unit controls the system and carries out the measurements on the readings of the sensors of photosynthesis, transpiration, light intensity outside the canopy, light climate inside the assimilation chambers, and dry and wet temperatures from selected points. These measurements are shown digitally and automatically punched onto paper tape.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Kanninen, E-mail: mk@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown
  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
  • Salminen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown
  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 5006, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Typpilannoituksen vaikutus havupuiden fotosynteesikapasiteettiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5006. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14860
English title: Effects of nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic capacity of coniferous trees.
Original keywords: havupuut; lannoitus; typpilannoitus; fotosynteesikapasiteetti; neulasmassa
English keywords: biomass; photosynthetic capacity; nitrogen fertilization; coniferous trees; needle mass
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the photosynthetic capacity of conifers is assessed on the basis of literature. The review emphasizes the role of changes of needle mass as a factor affecting the result of nutrient application. In particular, the increase in needle mass results in a considerable increase in photosynthetic capacity. The effect of fertilization on the photosynthetic rate seems to be of minor importance. The effect on the photosynthetic rate is, however, poorly documented as is the case for the effect of fertilization on the respiration rate. There is evidence that proper application of nitrogen fertilizers may double the photosynthetic capacity of conifers, mainly as a result of increase in needle mass.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 5003, category Article
Hannu Saarenmaa. (1978). The occurrence of bark beetles (Col., Scolytidae) in a dead spruce stand flooded by beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl.) . Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5003. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14857
Original keywords: kuusi; hyönteistuhot; tulva-alueet; kaarnakuoriaiset; kanadanmajava
English keywords: bark beetles; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Castor canadensis; insect damages; Trypodendron lineatum; flooded areas; Pityogenes chalcographus; Hylurgops palliatus; Ips typographus; Dryocetes autographus
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

 

The aim of the study was to determine which kinds of insects had infected the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in different stands killed by flooding caused by beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl), and if there was any danger that they would subsequently cause damage in the surrounding forests. The effect of tree diameter and certain stand characteristics on the fauna of dead trees are discussed. The occurrence of different insect combinations and qualifications for their coexistence were studied.

Pityogenes chalcographus L., Trypodendron lineatum O., Hylurgops palliatus Gyll. and Dryocetes autographus Ratz. occurred most abundantly. 20 phloem or wood boring species were observed in 5 regular succession types. Secondary species occurred in a virgin stand while Ips typographus L. was found at the edge of a felling area. Owing to the flooding, species preferring moist conditions were abundant. In this case damages had not spread to the surrounding forests which, however, might be possible under certain conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarenmaa, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4999, category Article
Tapio Klen, Veikko Louhevaara. (1978). The additional physical strain caused by safety equipment in logging work. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 4999. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14853
Original keywords: metsätyö; työturvallisuus; työn kuormittavuus; hakkuutyö; turvavarusteet
English keywords: work load; occupational safety; forest work; physical stress; logging work; safety equipment
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The safety clothing, rubber safety boots, belt with lifting hooks and personal protectors can weight about 3 kg more than the normal work clothing including rubber boots. In order to evaluate the increase off the physical strain in logging work due to them, laboratory tests performed on tread mill were made. The physical strain increased 3–11% as estimated from heart rate and 4–8% as estimated from oxygen consumption measurements.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Klen, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Louhevaara, E-mail: vl@mm.unknown
article id 4994, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1978). Seismisten luotausmenetelmien soveltuvuus metsäautoteiden pohjatutkimuksiin. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 4994. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14848
English title: Seismic survey methods in forest road construction.
Original keywords: tienrakennus; metsätiet; mittausmenetelmät; seismografi; pohjatutkimus
English keywords: road construction; forest roads; seismographs; sub-surface earth investigations; measurement methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the study was to find out the technical and economical applicability of seismic survey methods of sub-surface earth investigations in forest road planning. Two seismographs, SOIL-TEST MD 1 and BISON 1570, were tested in studyin 31 cuts and 3 gravel areas. The devices proved to be usable in field conditions. Sounding one spot costs about 75 Fmk and methods’ rentability is greatly based on the ration between expected and unexpected events, which depends on the areal geology. It is profitable to purchase the device especially if digging out of unexpected bedrock causes high costs.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saarilahti, E-mail: ms@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4985, category Article
Pertti Harstela. (1978). Metsätyön kuormittavuuden määrittelyä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4985. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14839
English title: Definition of the amount of strain caused by forest work.
Original keywords: metsätyö; ergonomia; työn kuormittavuus
English keywords: ergonomics; work load; forest work; physical stress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The concepts central to ergonomic research connected with the amount of strain caused by work was studied. A model was made to describe the process of strain. The model includes the following concepts: load or stress, human input, worker, strain, renewal of human resources, output and their hierarchical units. Based on the quality of human input, the forest work was roughly divided into two categories: (1) work demanding primarily muscle activity and (2) neuro-sensory work. In the first group, especially in cutting work, the main part of the human input is intensive consumption of muscle energy. In addition, work load causes accidents, wear of skeletal and muscular systems and processes by noise, vibrations, and climate. Correspondingly, when operating forest machines, the human input is mainly neuro-sensory functions of the central nervous system. Work load causes directly the effects of low frequency vibration and of other work conditions. The model was tested on data from research of forest work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Harstela, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4980, category Article
Eero Väisänen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Annual growth level of some plant species as a function of light available for photosynthesis. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14834
Keywords: light; temperature; methods; annual growth; forest vegetation; net photosynthesis
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

A quantitative method for determining the annual growth level of plant species has been presented. In particular, attention was paid to the dependence of the growth level on the amount of light available for photosynthesis. A mathematical model for the dependence of structural matter production on photosynthetic production has been presented for some plant species.

The study is based on the assumption that the total amount of annual net photosynthesis plays a role of primary importance in determining the relationship between photosynthetic production and structural matter production. The basic environmental factors determining the photosynthetic rate are light and temperature, if the water and nutrient supply is adequate. The dependence of photosynthetic rate on light and temperature was determined by monitoring the CO2 uptake rate of natural plant populations between the photosynthetic levels of different plant populations with an infrared gas analyser.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Väisänen, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown
article id 4978, category Article
Paavo Valonen. (1977). Ajouraväli ja tekomiehen fyysinen kuormittuminen kuitupuun teossa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4978. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14832
English title: Strip road spacing and the physical strain put on forest workers during pulpwood cutting.
Original keywords: metsätyö; ajanmenekki; kasaus; ajouraväli; työn kuormittavuus
English keywords: time consumption; physical workload; forest work; stacking; strip road spacing; physical stress
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The physical strain put on forest workers and work time consumption during pulpwood cutting were compared when the bolts were stacked at the side of strip road, the strip road spacings being 15–25 m and 26–35 m, and when stacked at scattered points along the cutting strip.

When stacking at scattered points along cutting strip work time consumption was 17–21% and the heart rate 9–12% less than when stacking at the side of the strip road, strip road spacing being 15–25 m. When the strip road spacing was increased to 26–35 m, the time consumption increased by 18–30%, but the heart rate appeared unchanged. This result suggests that the forest worker compensates for increased physical strain caused by an increased stacking distance by changing his working technique and rate and by increasing the number of his breaks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Valonen, E-mail: pv@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4964, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari, Eero Väisänen. (1977). Annual production of some forest mosses as a function of light available for photosynthesis. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4964. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14815
Keywords: photosynthesis; stand density; light intensity; Hylocomnium splendens; mosses; Dicranum polysetum; Pleurozium schreberi
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of the present paper was to study the annual production of Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Hylocomnium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G and Dicranum polysetum Sw. as a function of light available for photosynthesis. The productivity of the above moss species is studied using the harvested quadrats method in Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Myrtillus site type representing different stand density classes (basal area from 0 to 34 m2/ha) in Southern Finland.

The annual production of each species in different stands was correlated with the amount of light available for photosynthesis i.e. with the photosynthetic production. Functions for the dependence of productivity on light conditions were produced for each species. The individual functions and their ecological significance is discussed. The adaptation of each species to low light intensity is evident since no meaningful addition to production takes place when the photosynthetic light ratio reaches values greater than 0.3–0.4. In other words, the level of photosynthesis which is 30–40% of that possible in the open, provides sufficient supply of carbohydrates or the basic functions of the moss species studied. Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum polysetum seem to have greater light requirements than Hylocomnium splendens.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
  • Väisänen, E-mail: ev@mm.unknown
article id 4954, category Article
Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Fertilization of Scots pine seedlings with different nitrogen fertilizer. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4954. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14800
Original keywords: mänty; istutus; kasvu; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; typpilannoitus; ammoniumsulfaatti
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; planting; growth; mortality; seedlings; fertilizing; nitrogen fertilizers; ammonium sulphate
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes an attempt to determine whether ammonium, nitrate and urea nitrogen are bound in peat used as a filling material in containerized seedling production, what is the effect of the nutrients on certain chemical properties in the peat, and what is the effect of the nitrogen fertilizers on the primary growth of containerized (paper-pot VH 608) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in connection with planting out. The seedlings were fertilized with ammonium sulphate, potassium nitrate and urea.

The results show that none of the fertilizers used were bound in the peat. The nitrogen content in the above ground part of the seedlings increased clearly. Fertilization with ammonium sulphate resulted in the greatest increment and this increase appears to be permanent. The wintering process was somewhat delayed by the fertilization. The seedling mortality rate for all the treatments has been quite appreciable. However, fertilization particularly with ammonium sulphate on the poorer of the two sites studied has had a positive effect on seedling survival. Furthermore, it appears that fertilizer treatments have decreased growth after planting, but in the case of ammonium sulphate this decrease has changed into a clear growth increment.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Westman, E-mail: cw@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4953, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari. (1976). Rate of photosynthesis of some forest mosses as a function of temperature and light intensity and effect of water content of moss cushion on photosynthetic rate. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4953. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14799
Keywords: photosynthesis; temperature; light intensity; Pleurosium schreberi; Hylocomnium splendens; Dicranum undulatum; mosses; water deficiency
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The photosynthetic rate of Pleurosium schreberi (Willd.), Hylocomnium splendens (Hedw.) and Dicranum undulatum (Sw.) grown in plastic containers was monitored with infrared gas analyser in open air under natural weather conditions. It proved that the photosynthetic rate of wet moss cushions was satisfactorily predicted by temperature and light intensity. In dry moss cushions this kind of model gave too high an estimate for photosynthetic rate. Water requirements of each moss species were found to be moderate, and water content of moss cushions limited photosynthetic rate only under serious water deficiency.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, E-mail: sk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown
article id 4940, category Article
Paavo Pelkonen, Heikki Smolander. (1976). Männyn kaasunvaihdon elpyminen talvilevon keskeytyessä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4940. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14786
English title: Increase in gas exchange rate in Scots pine by terminating the winter rest period.
Original keywords: mänty; fotosynteesi; aineenvaihdunta; haihdunta; talvilepo
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; net photosynthesis; winter dormancy; transpiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The activation of CO2 exchange was monitored in two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings transferred from the field to the laboratory in December. Gas exchange was monitored by an URAS I infrared gas analyser in a so-called open IRGA-system with trap type chambers. Transpiration was also measured at the same time by weighing the potted seedlings twice a day. The measuring period lasted eleven days. During the period, the level of both transpiration and net photosynthesis increased about ten times. Furthermore, it was found that the level of photosynthesis at high temperatures was relatively lower at the beginning than at the end of the measuring period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown (email)
  • Smolander, E-mail: hs@mm.unknown
article id 4937, category Article
Pertti Hari, Mikko Huhtamaa, Paavo Pelkonen, Veli Pohjonen, Raimo Salminen. (1976). A new approach for measuring light inside the canopy in photosynthesis studies. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4937. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14782
Keywords: photosynthesis; canopy; light intensity; measuring methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Light intensity inside the canopy varies considerably both in space and time. A new apparatus was developed which is disturbed as little as possible by the above-mentioned variation. The construction is based on the linear relationships between light intensity (measured using silicon diodes) and photosynthesis. This procedure permits linear operations (summing and integration) to be carried out on the output of the diodes without any loss of accuracy. There are five diodes in each assimilation chamber. A model, in which the independent variables include ligth, measured with the present equipment, and temperature, fits the photosynthetic rates well even inside the canopy.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hari, E-mail: ph@mm.unknown (email)
  • Huhtamaa, E-mail: mh@mm.unknown
  • Pelkonen, E-mail: pp@mm.unknown
  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown
  • Salminen, E-mail: rs@mm.unknown
article id 4901, category Article
Veli Pohjonen. (1974). Istutustiheyden vaikutus eräiden lyhytkiertoviljelyn puulajien ensimmäisen vuoden satoon ja pituuskasvuun. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 2 article id 4901. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14745
English title: Effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of some species undergoing short rotation culture.
Original keywords: pituuskasvu; hybridihaapa; harmaaleppä; kiiltopaju; lyhytkiertoviljely; istutustiheys; tuotto; satotaso; vesipaju
English keywords: yield; height growth; Alnus incana; Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides; Populus x wettsteinii; Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’; Salix phylicifolia; short rotation cultivation
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The effect of spacing on the first-year yield and height increment of Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx. (Populus x wettsteinii), Salix ’Aquatica Gigantea’, and Salix phylicifolia L. was studied at the Arctic Circle Agricultural Experimental Station in Northern Finland. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ gave yields which were twice as high as those of the other species in the study. The highest yields were of the order of 60 tons per hectare (fresh yield including foliage). The annual height growth in S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ was about 100 cm, in the others about 30–50 cm. S. ’Aquatica Gigantea’ had a maximal height growth when the distance between the seedlings was 25 cm.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjonen, E-mail: vp@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4893, category Article
Tauno Kallio, Jukka Selander, Antti Uusi-Rauva. (1974). Fomes annosuksen (Fr.) Cooke kantaitiöiden merkitseminen radioaktiivisilla isotoopeilla 3H, 32P, 125I. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4893. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14737
English title: Labelling of Fomes annosus basidiospores with radioactive isotopes 3H, 33P and 125I.
Original keywords: kuusi; juurikääpä; kantaitiöt; itiöemä; sienen metabolia
English keywords: Heterobasidion annosum; root rot; Fomes annosus; sporophores; basidiospore; metabolism
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The purpose of the study was to find out whether Fomes annosus (now Heterobasidion annosum) growing in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stump can, with its mycelium, take up the radioactive isotopes 3H, 33P and 125I in the heading, and whether it transfers them via the sporophores in situ to its basidiospores. Wood material in close proximity to active sporophores was injected with radioactive isotopes. All isotopes could be verified from the basidiospores. The production of viable basidiospores by sporophore was reduced by the isotope injections. This latter result may be of importance e.g. in meteorology for observation of the movements of air masses.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kallio, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Selander, E-mail: js@mm.unknown
  • Uusi-Rauva, E-mail: au@mm.unknown
article id 4888, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1973). Havaintoja kuusen vapaapölytysjälkeläistöjen ja männyn metsikköalkuperien CO2-aineenvaihdunnasta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 4 article id 4888. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14726
English title: Observations on CO2 exchange in open pollinated progenies of Norway spruce and provenances of Scots pine.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänjalostus; pluspuu; fotosynteesi; geneettinen muuntelu; pimeähengitys; yhteyttämisteho
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; tree breeding; photosynthesis capacity; genetic variance; dark respiration
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Photosynthesis and dark respiration in five families of autochtonous Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and in seedlings from twenty Finnish stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated in constant environmental conditions. Values of CO2 exchange were compared with the height growth and weight of seedlings in Norway spruce and with the weight alone in Scots pine. No statistically significant differences were found in CO2 exchange among progenies or stands. Photosynthetic efficiency and photosynthetic capacity showed a positive correlation both in spruce and in pine. Growth and net photosynthetic capacity were linearly and positively correlated in pine. Spruce and a higher light compensation point than pine. The use of an open IRGA system with several simultaneous measurements and the trap-type cuvette construction in genetic work are discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4878, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1973). Vuonna 1972 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4878. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14711
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1972.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1975 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4873, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Sisällysluettelo sarjoihin. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 4 article id 4873. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14680
English title: Indices to series Acta Forestalia Fennica 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; tieteelliset julkaisut; julkaisutoiminta
English keywords: forest research; forest science; Finnish Society of Forest Science; bibliographies; scientific publications; Acta Forestalia Fennica; Silva Fennica
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) publishes two series: Acta Forestalia Fennica and Silva Fennica. Outside these publications there are even other publications: the bibliography of Finnish forestry literature until 1933, Bibliographia Universalis Silviculturae, Paris I–II, 1967–70, and Research in Forestry and Wood Science in Finland. This paper is a bibliography of the publications, the issues of Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1913–1972 and Silva Fennica 1926–1972.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4869, category Article
Ole Oskarsson, P. M. A. Tigerstedt. (1972). Metsänjalostuksen mahdollisuudet II. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4869. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14672
English title: The possibilities in forest tree breeding II. Selection differences and genetic gains in selected seed stands of Scots pine.
Original keywords: mänty; metsänjalostus; tilavuuskasvu; valintahyöty; siemenkeräysmetsät; fenotyyppi; kuutiokasvu
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Scots pine; volume growth; genetic gain; forest tree breeding; seed stands; phenotype
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic gain of volume growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) selected seed stands. To obtain highest possible accuracy, the estimations are based on a large statistical material comprising 197 separate seed stands. It is concluded that the genetic gain of volume growth ranges between 7.4–15.0%. Unwanted pollen contaminations may, however, in the worst case halve this genetic gain.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Oskarsson, E-mail: oo@mm.unknown (email)
  • Tigerstedt, E-mail: pt@mm.unknown
article id 4863, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1972). Metsäpuiden fotosynteesin geneettinen vaihtelu. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4863. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14666
English title: Genetic variation of photosynthesis in forest trees.
Original keywords: fotosynteesi; geneettinen muuntelu; hengitys; fotorespiraatio; poppeli; hiilidioksidi; kaasuaineenvaihdunta
English keywords: photosynthesis; carbon dioxide; photorespiration; CO2 exhange
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In the literature review the current status of information on the genetic variation of CO2 exchange and some reviews and investigations on this subject are listed. Photorespiration is separately discussed and unpublished data of an electron microscope study of poplar leaf microbodies are presented.

Considerable genetic inter- and intraspecific variation is found in several characteristics that affect CO2 exchange in trees. Photosynthesis in young trees does not correlate well with growth through the whole rotation cycle. A special interest has been shown to marginal environmental conditions (e.g. water deficit, low temperature, and low light intensity), as opposed to optimal conditions often employed in laboratory studies of CO2 exchange in trees.

In an unpublished poplar studies by the author et.al. a preliminary experiment with poplar clones showed variation in the CO2 competition point. This variation was negatively correlated with the photosynthesis efficiency of these clones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Luukkanen, E-mail: ol@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4862, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1972). Vuonna 1971 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4862. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14665
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1971.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: Finland; forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1971 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4859, category Article
Eljas Pohtila. (1972). Istutuskuoppaan annetun kuparihienofosfaatin vaikutus männyn ja kuusen taimien elossapysymiseen ja pituuskasvuun eräällä kulotetulla ja auratulla uudistusalalla Koillis-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 1 article id 4859. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14662
English title: Effect of fine-grounded copper rock phosphate placed in the planting hole on the survival and height growth of Scots pine and Norway spruce in a burnt and furrowed reforestation are in northeast Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; metsänviljely; taimet; lannoitus; kuolleisuus; pituuskasvu; fosforilannoitus
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; fertilization; Picea abies; Scots pine; height growth; planting; phosphorus; mortality; copper; seedlings
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper describes the results of a fertilization experiment, in which transplants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were fertilized with various doses of fine-ground copper rock phosphate (33% P2O5, 4% Cu) placed direct in the planting hole. The experiment was made in northeast Finland on a clear-cut, burnt-over and furrowed moraine heath. The fertilization increased especially the survival and condition of the Scots pines and increased to some extent also the height growth of the plants. The spruce survived better than the pines.

The PDF includes a summary in English

  • Pohtila, E-mail: ep@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4854, category Article
G. M. Kozubov. (1971). Elektronimikroskooppisia tutkimuksia männyn ja kuusen kukka-aiheiden kehityksestä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4854. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14656
English title: Electron microscopic studies in the development of strobile primordia of Scots pine and Norway spruce.
Original keywords: kuusi; mänty; elektronimikroskopia; kasvianatomia; kasvifysiologia; kukka
English keywords: Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce; Picea abies; Scots pine; electron microscopy; plant anatomy; plant physiology; flower; strobile primordia
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This article is an abstract from a lecture given in Helsinki on 2.12.1970. Physiological differences in different parts of developing primordia of micro- and macrostrobiles are manifested in the ultrastructure of the cell tissues. In electron microscopy, the study off metabolic activities can be combined with the anatomical examination of the flower primordia.

The generative cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) develop under the strong metabolic activity of surrounding layers of cells. Simultaneously the activity and development of the organelles in generative cells becomes hindered, and these inhibitions will exist until the fertilization. It can be concluded that the higher the gradient of sexualization of the cells in different parts of flower primordia, the weaker the metabolic activity in these cells.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kozubov, E-mail: gk@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4837, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1971). Vuonna 1970 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4837. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14626
English title: Forestry papers issued in Finland in 1970.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat; tieteelliset julkaisut
English keywords: Finland; forest sciences; bibliographies; scientific publications
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1970 in five scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4814, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1970). Vuonna 1969 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4814. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14603
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1969.
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1969 in four scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4808, category Article
Erkki Lähde, Antti Oksanen. (1969). Morfologiset, gravimetriset ja fotometriset tunnukset männyn taimien juuristojen kuvaajina. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4808. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14596
English title: Morphological, gravimetric, and photometric characteristics in describing of the root systems of pine transplants.
Original keywords: mänty; Pinus sylvestris; juuristo; taimet; mittausmenetelmät; juurten pinta-ala; morfologia
English keywords: Scots pine; seedlings; root system; surface area of the root system; morphology
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

This project studied the value of various shoot and root-system characteristics as indicators of plantability of transplants. Correlation and regression analysis was used to compare these characteristics. The study material consisted of two-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants that had grown in a plastic greenhouse for the first year and then been transplanted in the open. The seedlings had been transplanted in the field without treatment or with the roots cut to a length of 8 cm. A part was transplanted without treatment into plastic pails. A gravimetric and photometric method was used to obtain a description of the surface area of the root systems.

The results show that the photometric value gives a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The greatest advantage offered by the method is the simplicity and rapidity of measurement. The gravimetric, and especially the titrimetric, measurement takes much more time per plant. Photometric measurement affects plantability little, and measured and planted transplants can be followed up in the field. In gravimetric measurements, it was found that fresh and dry weight of the plants were closely correlated.

Mycorrhizal frequency in the root systems gave a good picture of the surface area of the root system. The number of living roots-tips was also rather closely correlated with the surface area of the root system. The other morphological characteristics failed to serve as a satisfactory index for the surface area of root systems. The one closest correlated was the annual leader growth. The second best was stem diameter; the height of the plant, on the contrary, was rather poorly correlated with the other characteristics.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, E-mail: el@mm.unknown (email)
  • Oksanen, E-mail: ao@mm.unknown
article id 4802, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1969). Äkämäpunkkilaji (Nalepella haarlovi var. piceae-abietis Löyttyniemi, Acarina, Eriophyidae) kuusen taimien tuholaisena taimitarhoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4802. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14590
English title: An Eriophyidae species damaging Norway spruce seedlings in nurseries in Finland.
Original keywords: kuusi; hyönteistuhot; taimitarha; taimikasvatus; neulaspunkki; kuusen taimet; punkit
English keywords: Norway spruce; Picea abies; needles; seedling damages; nurseries; Acarina; Eriophyidae; Nalepella Haarlovi var. picea-abietis; Nalepella Haarlovi; mites
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In Finland the mite Nalepella is found in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in forests practically in every tree, and even in the nurseries. The paper reports on the occurrence of Nalepella Haarlovi var. picea-abietis Löyttyniemi in Finland in tree nurseries in Finland. The study is based on a large material, collected in connection with an investigation into spruce spider mites.

Nalepella lives vagrantly on the needles. Due to the sucking of the mites, the needles turn yellow, become dry an die. Single patches from sucking cannot be seen by the naked eye. They occur on all sides of the needles. The worst damage to spruce seedlings in nurseries is caused to the needles located in the top of the seedling. Sometimes the terminal bud dryes and the whole terminal shoot can die. However, the whole seedlings seldom die in consequence of the Nalepella mite alone. Subsequent damage to the injured needles is often caused by fungus Cladosporium herbarum.

The study shows that the mite causes economically significant damages only in the nurseries. In forests no such damages were observed in seedlings or in older trees. In 1965–68, significant damages occurred in 16 nurseries in Finland. About 600,000 four-year-old seedlings were destroyed in 1967. The damages were economically important only in the 4-year-old seedlings.

According to the study, seedlings damaged by Nalepella can be used for planting as they recover rather well after planting in the forest. Moreover, the damages end after planting, and density of the mite population decreases during the first summer.

The mite overwinters as egg on needles. The eggs hatch in Southern Finland in the end of April and in the beginning of May.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, E-mail: kl@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4787, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Vuonna 1968 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4787. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14573
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1968.
Original keywords: metsätiede; bibliografiat; metsäntutkmus
English keywords: forest research; forest science; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the articles of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1968 in the following scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports, included are also recensions on forest literature.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4771, category Article
J. G. Gordon, G. E. Gatherum. (1968). Photosynthesis and growth of selected Scots pine populations. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4771. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14556
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; photosynthesis; Scots pine; height growth; provenance; growth; photoperiod
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

Eight Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed sources, ranging from 42° to 66° north latitude, were grown under a constant, 16-hour photoperiod in a greenhouse for approximately 6 months. Rates of photosynthesis, as measured by an IRGA, and growth, as measured by increase in height and fresh and dry weight, differed among seed sources at the end of the six-month growing period. Photosynthetic capacity and growth were strongly related to latitude of seed source, and were greatest in the seed sources coming from a parent environment in which maximum photoperiods are about 16 hours.

Photosynthetic efficiency (rate of photosynthesis per gram needle weight) was also strongly related to latitude of seed source, but was lowest in the seedlings which exhibited the greatest growth and photosynthetic capacity. This may have been due to (1) more mutual shading of needles on the larger seedlings and (2) a lesser proportion of juvenile needles on the larger seedlings or (3) biochemical differences in the use of photosynthate in the needles. Seed source and light intensity had an interacting effect on rates of photosynthesis only in seedlings of the two northernmost seed sources.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Gordon, E-mail: jg@mm.unknown (email)
  • Gatherum, E-mail: gg@mm.unknown
article id 4763, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1968). Vuonna 1967 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 1 article id 4763. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14547
English title: Forest scientific research published in Finland in 1967.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsätiede; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest science; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the papers of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1967 by the scientific series Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4752, category Article
T. T. Kozlowski, S. Sasaki, J. H. Torrie. (1967). Effects of temperature on phytotoxicity of monuron, picloram, CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone to young pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 3 article id 4752. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14536
Keywords: herbicides; toxicity; seedlings; Pinus resinosa; phytotoxicity
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The apparent toxicity of soil-incorporated monuron, picloram, CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone to young Pinus resinosa Ait. seedlings was studied over a temperature range of 10–30 °C in growth chambers. The herbicides were first applied to the surface of autoclaved soil at 1 1b/A and later mixed into the soil. Thereafter pine seeds were planted and subsequent seedling development was studied. The effect of CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone were also studied at dosages of 2 and 3 1b/A (soil surface basis).

Under the conditions of this study, picloram and monuron were persistent in the soil and toxic to pine seedlings, whereas CDEC, EPTC, CDAA, and sesone appeared to be non-toxic. However, the apparent lack of phytotoxicity of the latter group apparently was caused largely by lack of activation of sesone by autoclaving soil and large losses from the soil of CDEC, EPTC, and CDAA even before seeds were planted.

High toxicity of picloram and monuron was showed by reductions in seedling survival, total dry weight increment of plants, and dry weight increment of surviving seedlings. Various temperature regimes greatly affected growth of herbicide treated plants and controls. In control plants both high and low temperatures adversely affected seedling survival and dry weight more than shoot growth. Temperature extremes generally inhibited root growth more than shoot growth. The high temperatures, 25 and 30 °C, markedly enhanced phytotoxicity of picloram and muron.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kozlowski, E-mail: tk@mm.unknown (email)
  • Sasaki, E-mail: ss@mm.unknown
  • Torrie, E-mail: jt@mm.unknown
article id 4739, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Vuonna 1966 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4739. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14449
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1966 .
Original keywords: metsätieteet; metsäntutkimus; bibliografiat
English keywords: forest research; forest sciences; bibliographies
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper lists the forest publications of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1966 in alphabetic order by the different scientific series, Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports. It also includes book reviews on forest literature. 

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4708, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1963). Korpi-imarre (Lastrea phegopteris (L.) Bary) -kasvuston rakenteesta. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4708. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14266
English title: On the structure of beech fern (Lastrea phegopteris (L.) Bary) community.
Original keywords: kasvusto; korpi-imarre; Phegopteris connectilis; rakenne; sanikkaiset
View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info
  • Oinonen, E-mail: eo@mm.unknown (email)
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1962). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4705. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14232
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.
Original keywords: metsänarviointi; ilmakuvat; metsäninventointi; menetelmät
English keywords: forest inventory; stratification; aerial photographs; forest mensuration; methods
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, E-mail: an@mm.unknown (email)
  • Poso, E-mail: sp@mm.unknown
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica no. 105 article id 4688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14129
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.
Original keywords: kasvillisuus; metsätyypit; bibliografiat; ekosysteemit; kasvupaikkaluokitus; kokoukset; metsäekologia
English keywords: vegetation; ecosystems; forest types; bibliographies; site classification; Symposiums
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.

 

The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, E-mail:
article id 4691, category Article
Arvo Seppälä. (1960). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran julkaisusarjojen sisällysluettelo : Acta Forestalia Fennica 51-70 (1942-1959), Silva Fennica 61-103 (1945-1960). Silva Fennica no. 103 article id 4691. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9130
English title: Publications of the Society of Forestry in Finland. Index.
Original keywords: metsänhoito; metsätalous; Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura
English keywords: forestry; bibliographies; bibliografiat; The Finnish Society of Forest Science
Abstract | View details | Full text in PDF | Author Info

The present bibliography is an index of publications brought out by the Society of Forestry in Finland (now The Finnish Society of Forest Science) in 1945–1960, a sequel of a similar index published in 1946. It consists a classification of the parts according to subject treated, based on the Oxford system, a system used in international forestry literature. The studies have been provided with Oxford numbers. The index includes the publications of Acta forestalia fennica (AFF), Silva Fennica (SF) and the Commentationes forestales.

The PDF includes a summary in English and German.

  • Seppälä, E-mail: as@mm.unknown